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International Trade and Unemployment in Less Developed Countries  [PDF]
Fernando Mesa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25101
Abstract:

The main interest focus of this paper is the relation between international trade and the labour market, with an emphasis on the unemployment rate, and the allocation of workers among sectors. A general trade equilibrium model with three sectors is constructed for a less developed country. An informal and un-tradable sector is characterised by flexible wages, while the other two sectors are tradable, export and import sectors. The model imposes a binding minimum wage on unskilled labour and wage distortions on skilled labour. Comparative statics are used to analyse the effects on the labour market of an open economy, a rise in the minimum wage and a positive productivity shock in the export sector.

On the Communication Requirements for the Smart Grid  [PDF]
Mohamed Daoud, Xavier Fernando
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.31008
Abstract: The current power grid is facing many challenges that it was not designed or engineered to handle which range from congestions and major blackouts to the overwhelming increase in demand and security concerns. The current electric grid was established before the 1960’s. It is believed that the electric grid is the most complex and gigantic machine ever made in human history; it consists of wires, cables, towers, transformers and circuit breakers installed together in outdated manner. During the 60’s, computers and sensors were used to monitor and slightly control the grid; however, fifty years later these sensors are considered less than ideal. Presented here is a review of the smart grid communication network in terms of configuration, bandwidth and latency requirements as well as the technology used. We simulate the access layer of the smart grid net-work and show that no single available communication technology can be used for all layers of the smart grid; thus, different technologies for different layers are needed. A new protocol for optimizing the smart grid is recommended.
A New Approach to the Optimization of the CVRP through Genetic Algorithms  [PDF]
Mariano Frutos, Fernando Tohmé
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.24058
Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to the analysis of complex distribution problems under capacity constraints. These problems are known in the literature as CVRPs (Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems). The procedure introduced in this paper optimizes a transformed variant of a CVRP. It starts generating feasible clusters and codifies their ordering. In the next stage the procedure feeds this information into a genetic algorithm for its optimization. This makes the algorithm independent of the constraints and improves its performance. Van Breedam problems have been used to test this technique. While the results obtained are similar to those in other works, the processing times are longer.
Quality Requirements for Multimedia Interactive Informative Systems  [PDF]
Sylviane Levy, Fernando Gamboa
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.68051
Abstract:

Multimedia Interactive Informative Systems (MIIS) are software applications resulting from the convergence of multiples technologies such as audiovisual, computing and communication. They aim to transmit information to a large, diverse and dispersed public. As with other mass media, the fulfillment of MIIS goals depends largely on the quality of communication between the system and end users. Therefore, those systems should be developed in order to ensure that this quality requirement is satisfied. If MIIS are constructed according to usual software engineering practices, the analysis discipline of the development process includes requirements identification and specification; however, these techniques are focused on functional requirements, and they do not give much importance to non-functional requirements. In this paper, we propose a development process based on the production of videogames which has two different phases: preproduction and production. The first phase, corresponding to requirements identification, derives into the concept of system. In order to translate this concept into a specification, we propose the use of new communicational attributes and a MIIS metamodel. The establishment of MIIS non-functional specification is the result of analyzing class diagrams through quality attributes. In order to evaluate if the specifications are responding to communicational attributes, a functional prototype is built and evaluated with end users. The proposed methodology is applied to a real case study.

Large-Scale Structure Formation via Quantum Fluctuations and Gravitational Instability  [PDF]
Fernando Porcelli, Giancarlo Scibona
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.56058
Abstract:

This is a review of the status of the universe as described by the standard cosmological model combined with the inflationary paradigm. Their key features and predictions, consistent with the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropies Probe) and Planck Probe 2013 results, provide a significant mechanism to generate the primordial gravitational waves and the density perturbations which grow over time, and later become the large-scale structure of the universe—from the quantum fluctuations in the early era to the structure observed 13.7 billion later, our epoch. In the single field slow-roll paradigm, the primordial quantum fluctuations in the inflaton field itself translate into the curvature and density perturbations which grow over time via gravitational instability. High density regions continuously attract more matter from the surrounding space, the high density regions become more and more dense in time while depleting the low density regions. At late times the highest density regions peaks collapse into the large structure of the universe, whose gravitational instability effects are observed in the clustering features of galaxies in the sky. Thus, the origin of all structure in the universe probably comes from an early era where the universe was filled with a scalar field and nothing else.

Dynamic Inconsistency and the Seignorage Paradox  [PDF]
Fernando Perera-Tallo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.56082
Abstract: Why do governments that pursue seignorage set growth rates of money that exceeds the one that maximizes it? This paper presents a Keynesian model with a government that pursues seignorage but dislikes inflation. Dynamic inconsistency problems prevent the implementation of the optimal growth rate of money and even the existence of stationary equilibrium. When stationary equilibrium exists, it is multiple and the growth rate of money is larger than the one that maximizes seignorage in some or even all equilibria.
Transvestite and Transsexual Teachers: The “High Heels Pedagogy”  [PDF]
Fernando Seffner, Marina Reidel
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.622243
Abstract: In the Brazilian educational scenario, transvestite and transsexual teachers are increasingly visible, and cause repercussions generally related to the prejudice and discrimination they suffer. This text investigates the pedagogical and educational consequences of the presence of transvestite and transsexual teachers in the classroom. Following the careers of a group of these teachers in several states of Brazil, we try to identify the elements that characterize their action in the classroom, and reach the proposition of the “high heels pedagogy”. In this pedagogical modality, two strong elements are combined, being a woman and being a teacher. The “high heels pedagogy” is about an educational activity that evades the traditional bodiless and sexless figure of the teacher. Contrary to what may be thought, a certain amount of eroticism and production of the woman who “has the role” in being a teacher, far from “misrepresenting” the space of the classroom, has brought out the power of affection. This results in a professional who is more skilled and involved with work, and a woman who assumes herself as adult reference in the classroom.
Institutions and Intellectuals That Configure the Concept of the Environment and Development in Latin America and Its Global Impact  [PDF]
Fernando Estenssoro, Eduardo Déves
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49116
Abstract:

This paper is part of a research into the Latin American thinking on international affairs and a continuation of a line of work on Latin American contributions to the environmental discussion installed in the global political agenda in the early 70s. The premise was that Latin American contributions were initially made by professionals closely related to ECLAC, UNEP and the Bariloche Foundation. These professionals and agencies understood how poverty and backwardness were endured by the majority of the regional and world’s population was one of the main causes of environmental degradation; consequently, overcoming the environmental crisis meant that underdevelopment should be eradicated without delay. This view of the environmental problems was synthesized in the combined concept of environment and development, which was also understood in the region as “eco development”. Finally, the broad phenomenon they wanted to describe using the terms “environment and development” was summarized in the concept of sustainable development as defined in the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development report “Our Common Future”.

As rebeli?es nas pris?es: novos significados a partir da experiência brasileira
Salla, Fernando;
Sociologias , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-45222006000200011
Abstract: the aim of this article is to examine the profile of riots in brazil's prison system since the 1970s, reviewing what has been produced on those events in france, the united states, and the united kingdom. the article's main argument is that riots in brazilian prisons in the last fifteen years have been associated both to decaying prison conditions and the state's problems to exert control over the prison's everyday life, thus allowing organized crime groups to exert power over the mass of inmates, who use riots to remove enemies and strengthen their position of domination before prison staff.
Consideraciones preliminares sobre la credibilidad
Verdugo,Fernando;
Teología y vida , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0049-34492004000200002
Abstract: this article reprints the introductory session to the internal seminar of lecturers from the faculty of theology of the uc. in the first place, the author sums up what is usually understood by `credibility' and the general criteria through which something or someone gains credibility (being reasonable, relevant or significant, capable of producing aesthetic pleasure). then the author deals at length with the need to take notice of the cultural conditionings of the christian faith. the faith, the same as any other human experience, is culturally mediated. it is crucial for theology to become aware of this fact and come to terms with its methodological consequences, if it wants to face current challenges and so contribute to the credibility of christianity
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