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The Bernhard Nocht Institute: 100 years of tropical medicine in Hamburg
Fleischer, Bernhard;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000700003
Abstract: the bernhard nocht institute (bni) is a four months younger and much smaller sibling of the instituto oswaldo cruz. it was founded on 1 october 1900 as an institut für schiffs- und tropenkrankheiten (institute for maritime and tropical diseases) and was later named after its founder and first director bernhard nocht. today it is the germany's largest institution for research in tropical medicine. it is a government institution affiliated to the federal ministry of health of germany and the department of health of the state of hamburg. as the center for research in tropical medicine in germany the bni is dedicated to research, training and patient care in the area of human infectious diseases, which are of particular relevance in the tropics. it is the primary mission of the bni to develop means to the control of these diseases. secondary missions are to provide expertise for regional and national authorities and to directly and indirectly improve the health care for national and regional citizens in regard to diseases of the tropics.
Ent?o, minha filha, vamos se afomentar?Puxa??o, parteiras e reprodu??o em Melga?o, Pará
Fleischer,Soraya;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000300011
Abstract: this article presents ethnographic data, collected between 2004 and 2005, about the obstetric service offered by a group of 21 midwives in the city of melga?o, state of pará, brazil. the literature has largely described the work of midwives in brazil and in many other countries around the world. however, there is a kind of practice, which was analyzed very scarcely up to now. the objective of this article is to discuss precisely the practice called puxa??o, an abdominal massage performed mainly on pregnant women to alleviate indispositions, inform the position and sex of the fetus, help define the date and place of delivery, socialize women for maternity and put pregnancy into the context of the local patterns of reproduction, family, well being and health. it can be observed that these midwives offer a very suitable and appropriate pre-natal service, well adapted to the specific needs of the women of the town. even though homebirth has been slowly giving way to hospital birth, this personalized service and practice keeps increasing.
As elei??es municipais no Brasil: uma análise comparativa (1982-2000)
Fleischer, David;
Opini?o Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-62762002000100005
Abstract: this article analyses the electoral results for the first round and second round of the 2000 local elections in brazil. it focuses on the performance of each of the main political parties and some of the major candidates, in the country regions and the main cities, it analyses the general performance of women candidates, and the author searchs to make some considerations about the impact of the electoral results on the political scenery of the 2002 general elections.
Uso e circula??o de medicamentos em um bairro popular urbano na Ceilandia, DF
Fleischer, Soraya;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902012000200014
Abstract: in the suburbs of brasilia, family health is taken care of in particular by elderly women. they know the official and non-official shortcuts inside the health system, medicines that each of the family members should take and the places where medicines can be bought cheaper or received for free. they also make experiments with pills and capsules - each ones are strong or dangerous, which ones have to be substituted or combined with different drugs, etc. this paper aims to discuss how informal networks sharing pharmaceutical knowledge and local forms of communication between family members, neighbors and health professionals determine a wider, more complex understanding of health. it is based on an ethnographic research with older residents of guariroba district in ceilandia, df, which are in familiar terms with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. some of the data that support the discussion are the life stories of these migrants towards the federal district (brasilia region, in brasil); the consumption of drugs as a generator of bodily and social experiences of falling ill; self-medication as a practice even after having been seen at the local health agents. this paper wants to emphasize that technical opinion and products offered by official agents of health care did not prevent interviewed women of resorting regularly to a much wider and creative network, neither replaced it. it wants also to show that to perfection this network is a public demonstration of involvement and commitment of these caregivers with their patients' recovery or stability.
End-of-life decisions and the law: a new law for South Africa?
T Fleischer
Continuing Medical Education , 2003,
Abstract:
CP Violation and B Physics at the LHC
Fleischer, Robert
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: In this decade, there are huge efforts to explore B-meson decays, which provide an interesting playground for stringent tests of the Standard-Model description of the quark-flavour sector and the CP violation residing there. Thanks to the $e^+e^-$ B factories at KEK and SLAC, CP violation is now a well-established phenomenon in the B-meson system, and recently, also $B^0_s$--$\bar B^0_s$ mixing could be measured at the Tevatron. The decays of $B^0_s$ mesons are the key target of the B-physics programme at the LHC, and will be the focus of this presentation, discussing the theoretical aspects of various benchmark channels and the question of how much space for new-physics effects in their observables is left by the recent experimental results.
Theoretical Review of $\gamma/\phi_3$ Measurements with $B_s$ Decays to Charm
Fleischer, Robert
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: We give an overview of various determinations of $\gamma/\phi_3$ with the help of $B_s$ decays into charmed final states, distinguishing between transitions with tree and penguin contributions and pure tree decays. In the corresponding strategies, the $U$-spin flavour symmetry of strong interactions provides a very useful tool, and offers interesting "by-producs" for the $B$-physics programme at the LHC, including the control of the penguin uncertainties in the determinations of the $B^0_d$-$\bar B^0_d$ and $B^0_s$--$\bar B^0_s$ mixing phases $\phi_d$ and $\phi_s$ from $B_d\to J/\psi K_S$ and $B_s\to J/\psi\phi$, respectively, and an alternative extraction of the latter phase through $B_s\to D_s^+D_s^-$. Finally, we point out that the cleanest determinations of the mixing phases $\phi_s$ and $\phi_d$ are offered by the pure tree decays $B_s\to D_\pm K_{S(L)}$ and $B_d\to D_\pm\pi^0, D_\pm\rho^0, ...$, respectively, which are very interesting for the searches of new physics.
The B -> pi K Puzzle: A Status Report
Fleischer, Robert
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: We discuss the theoretical interpretation of the $B\to\pi K$ system in the light of new data. Using the branching ratio and direct CP asymmetry of $B^0_d\to\pi^-K^+$, the picture of the direct CP violation in $B_d^0\to\pi^+\pi^-$ could be clarified: we predict $A_{CP}^{dir}(B_d\to\pi^+\pi^-)=-0.24\pm0.04$, which favours the BaBar measurement, and extract $\gamma=(70.0^{+3.8}_{-4.3})^\circ$, in agreement with the Standard-Model fits of the unitarity triangle. All $B\to\pi K$ modes with colour-suppressed electroweak penguin contributions are found in excellent agreement with the Standard Model. The data for the ratios $R_{c,n}$ of the charged and neutral $B\to\pi K$ branching ratios, which are sizeably affected by electroweak penguin contributions, have moved quite a bit towards the Standard-Model predictions, which are almost unchanged, thereby reducing the "$B\to\pi K$ puzzle". On the other hand, the mixing-induced CP violation of $B^0_d\to\pi^0 K_S$ still looks puzzling and could be accommodated through a modified electroweak penguin sector with a large CP-violating new-physics phase, while the observed non-vanishing difference between the direct CP asymmetries of $B^\pm\to\pi^0K^\pm$ and $B_d\to\pi^\mp K^\pm$ seems to be caused by hadronic and not by new physics.
Exploring CP Violation and Penguin Effects through $B^0_d \to D^+ D^-$ and $B^0_s \to D^+_s D^-_s$
Fleischer, Robert
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-007-0341-4
Abstract: The decay $B^0_d \to D^+ D^-$ offers an interesting probe of CP violation, but requires control of penguin effects, which can be done through $B^0_s \to D^+_s D^-_s$ by means of the $U$-spin flavour symmetry of strong interactions. Recently, the Belle collaboration reported indications of large CP violation in the $B^0_d$ decay, which were, however, not confirmed by BaBar, and first signals of the $B^0_s$ channel were observed at the Tevatron. In view of these developments and the quickly approaching start of the LHC, we explore the allowed region in observable space for CP violation in $B^0_d \to D^+ D^-$, perform theoretical estimates of the relevant hadronic penguin parameters and observables, and address questions both about the most promising strategies for the extraction of CP-violating phases and about the interplay with other measurements of CP violation and the search for new physics. As far as the latter aspect is concerned, we point out that the $B^0_{q} \to D_{q}^+ D^-_{q}$ system provides a setting for the determination of the $B^0_q$-$\bar B^0_q$ mixing phases ($q\in\{d,s\}$) that is complementary to the conventional $B^0_d\to J/\psi K_S$ and $B^0_s\to J/\psi \phi$ modes with respect to possible new-physics effects in the electroweak penguin sector.
$B_{s,d} \to \pi\pi,\pi K, KK$: Status and Prospects
Fleischer, Robert
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-007-0391-7
Abstract: Several years ago, it was pointed out that the U-spin-related decays $B_d\to\pi^+\pi^-$, $B_s\to K^+K^-$ and $B_d\to\pi^\mp K^\pm$, $B_s\to \pi^\pm K^\mp$ offer interesting strategies for the extraction of the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle. Using the first results from the Tevatron on the $B_s$ decays and the B-factory data on $B_{u,d}$ modes, we compare the determinations of gamma from both strategies, study the sensitivity on U-spin-breaking effects, discuss the resolution of discrete ambiguities, predict observables that were not yet measured but will be accessible at LHCb, explore the extraction of the width difference $\Delta\Gamma_s$ from untagged $B_s\to K^+K^-$ rates, and address the impact of new physics. The data for the $B_d\to\pi^+\pi^-$, $B_s\to K^+K^-$ system favour the BaBar measurement of direct CP violation in $B_d\to\pi^+\pi^-$, which will be used in the numerical analysis, and result in a fortunate situation, yielding $\gamma=(66.6^{+4.3+4.0}_{-5.0-3.0})^\circ$, where the latter errors correspond to a generous estimate of U-spin-breaking effects. On the other hand, the $B_d\to\pi^\mp K^\pm$, $B_s\to \pi^\pm K^\mp$ analysis leaves us with $26^\circ\leq\gamma\leq70^\circ$, and points to a value of the $B_s\to \pi^\pm K^\mp$ branching ratio that is larger than the current Tevatron result. An important further step will be the measurement of mixing-induced CP violation in $B_s\to K^+K^-$, which will also allow us to extract the $B^0_s$--$\bar B^0_s$ mixing phase unambiguously with the help of $B_s\to J/\psi \phi$ at the LHC. Finally, the measurement of direct CP violation in $B_s\to K^+K^-$ will make the full exploitation of the physics potential of the $B_{s,d}\to \pi\pi, \pi K, KK$ modes possible.
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