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Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005
Abstract:

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153
Abstract:

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019
Abstract:

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

Predicting School Achievement Rather than Intelligence: Does Metacognition Matter?  [PDF]
Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes, Hudson F. Golino, Igor Gomes Menezes
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59122
Abstract:

This paper investigates the role of specific and general metacognitive ability on specific and general academic achievement, controlling for the effects of intelligence. Four hypotheses were elaborated and empirically tested through structural equation modelling. The sample was composed by 684 students (6th to 12th graders) from a private Brazilian school, which answered to three intelligence tests and three metacognitive tests. The modeled hypotheses presented a good data-fit (χ2 = 51.18; df = 19; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.05), showing that the general metacognitive ability explained general academic achievement rather than intelligence, but did not explain specific academic achievement. On the other hand, specific metacognitive ability explained specific academic achievement rather than intelligence, but did not explain general academic achievement. The predictive power of the general metacognitive ability was greater than fluid intelligence in the explanation of general academic achievement. In the same line, specific metacognitive ability had a greater predictive power than intelligence and specific knowledge in the explanation of specific academic achievement. Finally, a new structural model of metacognition and its role in academic achievement are proposed.

Naturotherapies Based on Minerals  [PDF]
Celso de Sousa Figueiredo Gomes
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.31001
Abstract:

Since the antiquity, and on an empirical basis, man has accumulated experience on the benefits and risks of minerals (such as, special clay, mud and sand) and other mineral resources (such as, salt, sea water, spring water, underground water, volcanic emissions and dust) on human health. Man and minerals are chemical systems sharing a common composition, comprising major, minor and trace chemical elements, such as, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, phosphor, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, silicon, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese and fluorine, all essential to life, to a high standard of living and to the formation of minerals; in the natural environment where man lives minerals and chemical elements are omnipresent, therefore, interactions are expected to occur and to condition mans life and his standard of living, in turn highly determined by our health state. Examples of the properties and medicinal use of certain types of special clay, certain types of special sand, and certain types of special natural mineral water, thermal or not, in the treatment of particular types of health affections will be disclosed.

Discrete Dynamics in Evolutionary Games
Orlando Gomes
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/416789
Abstract: This paper furnishes a guide for the study of 2-dimensional evolutionary games in discrete time. Evolutionarily stable strategies are identified and nonlinear outcomes are explored. Besides the baseline payoffs of the established strategic interaction, the following elements are also vital to determine the dynamic outcome of a game: the initial fitness of each agent and the rule of motion that describes how individuals switch between strategies. In addition to the dynamic rule commonly used in evolutionary games, the replicator dynamics, we propose another rule, which acknowledges the role of expectations and sophisticates the replicator mechanism.
Reavalia??o taxon?mica de algumas espécies dos gêneros Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae)
Gomes, Mario;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062003000300011
Abstract: the morphological characteristics of several taxa of the genera coussarea aubl. and faramea aubl., linked to the tribe coussareae, are reviewed in this paper. the species included here have been poorly described, leading to doubts concerning their proper denomination. character analysis resulted in new limits for these species: coussarea hoehnei (k. krause) standl. and c. virens müll. arg. are placed in synonymy with c. contracta var. panicularis müll. arg.; c. cornifolia (benth.) müll. arg. is linked to c. hydrangeifolia (benth.) müll. arg.; c. porophylla (vell.) müll. arg. is included as a variety of c. meridionalis (vell.) müll. arg. a new variety of c. nodosa (benth.) müll. arg. is presented. the following species of faramea are placed in synonymy: f. cyanea müll. arg. in f. hyacinthina mart.; f. warmingiana müll. arg. and f. marginata cham. in f. latifolia (cham. & schltdl.) dc. and f. paulensis zahlbr. in f. tetragona müll. arg. f. montevidensis (cham. & schltdl.) dc. is also included here because it is commonly identified as f. marginata cham. descriptions of the taxa that are more detailed than the original ones are given, as well as keys to varieties with major distinguishing characteristics. data on flowering and fruiting periods, geographic distribution, habitats, general comments, representative specimen list and type localizations are also given for these taxa.
Novas espécies de Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae)
Gomes, Mario;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062003000300010
Abstract: four new species of the rubiaceae, tribe coussareae are described and illustrated: coussarea bocainae; faramea hymenocalyx; f. paratiensis and f. picinguabae. they are based on the material collected in the parati mountains, located on the border between rio de janeiro and s?o paulo states, near the coast. this mountainous area is part of the serra da bocaina national park, which is covered mainly by atlantic rain forest. these new taxa are found in this forest within the park.
Racionalidade e escolha
Gomes,Orlando;
Economia Global e Gest?o , 2007,
Abstract: the concept of rationality is one of the most debated and controversial notions that the economic science has to offer. the rational choice paradigm, which involves profit maximization and utility maximization behavior, may be questioned by an important number of studies that remind that the human choice process is not an error exempt process, that it does not ignore emotional factors and that it is not fulfilled outside a social context where interaction determines behavior. this text intends to characterize the way in which the economists work the notion of rational decision and applies some of their ideas to model the decision process. in particular, we build an exercise in which one considers the cognitive costs involved in the choice process and we make use of the discrete choice theory to exemplify how social interaction and stimuli like advertising determine consumption and utility trajectories.
Ifigenia de Teresa de la Parra: Dictadura, poéticas y parodias
Gomes,Miguel;
Acta literaria , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68482004002900004
Abstract: this article points out the shortcomings or contradictions brought about by any attempt of identifying teresa de la parra?s novels, particularly ifigenia, with the avant-garde or an articulated reaction against the so-called ?novela de la tierra?. by underscoring ifigenia?s re-writing of manuel díaz rodríguez?s ?modernistas? novels and essays, this article also proposes the subtle presence of anti-government criticism in parra?s fiction
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