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Stress prevention by modulation of autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability): A preliminary study using transcranial direct current stimulation  [PDF]
Eduardo Manuel Gonalves
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.22016
Abstract: Introduction: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, technique for brain stimulation. Anodal stimulation causes neuronal depolarisation and long-term potentiation, while cathodal stimulation causes hyperpolarisation and long-term depression. Stressors are associated with an increase in sympathetic cardiac control, a decrease in parasympathetic control, or both. Associated with these reactions is a frequently reported increase in Low Frequency (LF) Heart Rate Variability (HRV), a decrease in High Frequency (HF) power, and/or an increase in the LF/HF ratio. Objectives and aims: The present work aims to explore the tDCS potential in the modulation of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), through indirect stimulation of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). Methods: Two subjects, a 39 year old female and a 49 year old male, gave informed consent. Saline soaked synthetic sponges involving two, thick, metalic (stainless steel) rectangles, with an area of 25 cm2 each have been used as electrodes, connected to Iomed Phoresor II Auto device. It has been delivered a 2 mA current, for 20 minutes, over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) (Anode). Spectrum analysis (cStress software) of HRV has been performed before and after tDCS administration. Results: The female/male subject results of LF power, HF power and LF/HF ratio, before tDCS administration, were, respectively: 50.1 nu/60 nu, 46.1 nu/21.7 nu and 1.087/2.771; and, after tDCS administration, respectively: 33.5 nu/52.7 nu, 47.6 nu/ 22.8 nu and 0.704/2.312. Conclusions: tDCS over the left DLPFC (left ACC) increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity, suggesting the importance of tDCS in the management of stress-related disorders.
Factorial Validation of Warr’s (1990) Well-Being Measure: A Sample Study on Police Officers  [PDF]
Sónia P. Gonalves, José Neves
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27108
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the factorial validity of the job-related affective well-being scale—the IWP Multi-Affect Indicator. The sample was composed of 1466 police officers and collected through self-report questionnaires. With the objective of validating the factorial structure of the IWP Multi-Affect Indicator, several models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The results supported a four-factor structure: anxiety, comfort, depression and enthusiasm, as well as a five-factor structure including the same four factors plus a second-order factor called global affective well-being.
Mental disorders and sociodemographic variables in pop-ulation assisted by the Family Health Program in Brazil  [PDF]
Daniel Maffasioli Gonalves, Suzi Camey
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31006
Abstract:

Objectives: This paper aims to estimate the associations between common mental disorders (CMD) as well as cases of alcohol abuse/dependence (ADD) with sociodemographic variables in population assisted by Family Health Program (FHP) in Santa Cruz do Sul, Southern Brazil. Methods: All residents over 14 years of age from 3 areas assisted by the FHP were invited to participate between 10 February 2006 to 10 February 2007. Results: Of 2921 participants, the prevalence estimates of suspected cases of CMD and ADD were 29.93% and 12.07%, respectively. Female, unfavorable employment situation, low schooling and low income showed a positive and independent association with CMD. Male, unfavorable employment situation and CMD showed an independent association with ADD. Conclusions: Groups with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions present the highest risk and should be taken into account when planning public mental health policies.


Stress, Executive Function, Resilience and Quality of Life in Portuguese Subjects in Situations of Economic Insufficiency and Unemployment  [PDF]
Eduardo Gonalves, Saul Neves de Jesus
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.54040
Abstract: The aim of this study is the investigation of the impact of stress of Portuguese subjects in situations of economic insufficiency and unemployment on executive function and quality of life and the coping strategies and resilience skills used. The sample consists of 41 participants. The psychometric instruments used are validated for Portuguese population, measure (perceived) stress, coping, material deprivation, resilience and quality of life, defined by World Health Organization. Executive function has been evaluated through performances at Stroop and Berg tasks. It has been concluded that, in this population, resilience skills and active coping strategies are positively correlated with quality of life. Quality of life is negatively correlated with material deprivation. Active coping strategies are supported by adequate executive function, which neurobiological substrate is dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Not active coping strategies correlate negatively with cognitive flexibility, suggesting the presence of a deficit at infero-lateral prefrontal cortex.
Polícia, ordem pública e “novas” formas de vigilancia: as dinamicas e os dilemas da seguran a
Gon?alo Rocha Gonalves
Análise Social , 2012,
Abstract:
O Tempo das Ruas na S o Paulo de Fins do Império
Gon?alo Rocha Gonalves
Análise Social , 2009,
Abstract:
Developmentism and education in Paraná state (1960s-1970s)
Nadia Gonalves,Sandro Gonalves
Diálogos , 2010, DOI: 10.4025/dialogos.v12i2 e 3.18
Abstract: This study discusses how developmentism is approached in the speeches of the governors of Paraná State to the State Legislative Assembly and the way in which education is related to it. We begin with a brief history of the different perspectives of developmentism found in Brazilian politics from the 1950s to the 1970s. The work then moves on to developmentism in Paraná, and an analysis of the function attributed to education in the speeches of the governors and their educational policies, especially concerning the implementation of Law 5692/71, which reorganized elementary education in both elementary and high schools. Se discute cómo es abordado el desarrollismo en los Mensajes de los gobernadores del Estado de Paraná a la Asamblea Legislativa y la forma en que la Educación se relaciona con él. Se inicia con una breve historia sobre las distintas perspectivas de desarrollismo que permearon la política brasile a entre las décadas de 1950 y 1970. Luego es abordado el desarrollismo en el Estado de Paraná, analizando el papel atribuido a la Educación en los discursos de los gobernadores y en las políticas educacionales, en especial, las referentes a la implementación de la Ley 5.692/71, que reorganizaba la ense anza básica primaria y secundaria. Discute-se como o desenvolvimentismo é abordado nas mensagens dos governadores do Estado do Paraná à Assembleia Legislativa do Estado e a maneira como a Educa o é a ele relacionada. Inicia-se com breve histórico sobre distintas perspectivas de desenvolvimentismo que permearam a política brasileira nas décadas de 1950 a 1970. Em seguida, trata-se do desenvolvimentismo no Paraná e se relisa uma análise do papel atribu&iacu
Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector
Manuel AFV Gonalves
Virology Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-2-43
Abstract: The human adeno-associated virus (AAV) was discovered in 1965 as a contaminant of adenovirus (Ad) preparations [1]. AAV is one of the smallest viruses with a non-enveloped icosahedral capsid of approximately 22 nm (Fig. 1), the crystal structure of which has been recently determined to a 3-angstrom resolution [2]. Because a co-infecting helper virus is usually required for a productive infection to occur, AAV serotypes are ascribed to a separate genus in the Parvoviridae family designated Dependovirus. Despite the high seroprevalence of AAV in the human population (approximately 80% of humans are seropositive for AAV2) the virus has not been linked to any human illness. The AAV has a linear single-stranded DNA genome of approximately 4.7-kilobases (kb). The AAV2 DNA termini consist of a 145 nucleotide-long inverted terminal repeat (ITR) that, due to the multipalindromic nature of its terminal 125 bases, can fold on itself via complementary Watson-Crick base pairing and form a characteristic T-shaped hairpin structure (Fig. 2) [3]. According to the AAV DNA replication model [4] this secondary structure provides a free 3' hydroxyl group for the initiation of viral DNA replication via a self-priming strand-displacement mechanism involving leading-strand synthesis and double-stranded replicative intermediates (Fig. 3). The virus does not encode a polymerase relying instead on cellular polymerase activities to replicate its DNA [5]. The ITRs flank the two viral genes rep (replication) and cap (capsid) encoding nonstructural and structural proteins, respectively. The rep gene, through the use of two promoters located at map positions 5 (p5) and 19 (p19), and an internal splice donor and acceptor site, encode four regulatory proteins that are dubbed Rep78, Rep68, Rep52 and Rep40 on basis of their apparent molecular weights. The Rep78 and Rep68 proteins participate in the AAV DNA replication process via their interaction with Rep-binding element (RBE) and terminal resolutio
Notes on the identity of Halictus glabrescens Cockerell and description of a new species of Halictillus Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae s.l., Halictinae)
Gonalves, Rodrigo B;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000500014
Abstract: a lectotype is newly designated for halictus glabriventris friese (a homonym and replaced by h. glabrescens cockerell) and the name transferred from halictillus (augochlorini) to dialictus (halictini), where it is a junior synonym of dialictus spinolae (reed). this placement resolves a long standing confusion involving the association of this name with a nest description from the beginning of the last century. in addition, a new species of halictillus from chile is described and figured.
Ser do tempo em Bergson
Coelho, Jonas Gonalves;
Interface - Comunica??o, Saúde, Educa??o , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832004000200004
Abstract: we considered bergson's duration concept. we intended to show that, according to bergson, the time of philosophers and scientists is a fictitious time, a spatial scheme that hides the nature of real time, which cannot be separated from physical and psychological events. for bergson, real time is succession, continuity, change, memory and creation.
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