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Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Tunisian Coronary Patients  [PDF]
Grira Nadra, Sandesni Rihab, Lamine Ossama, Aboulkassem Sana, Ayoub Manel, El Oudi Mabrouka, Stambouli Najla, Lahidheb Thaker, Haouala Habib, Mazigh Chakib, Aouni Zied
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104214
Abstract:
Introduction: Ischemic heart disease ranked among the leading causes of death worldwide. Several biological and genetic risk factors associated with acute coronary syndrome. By addressing the risk factors, it is possible to prevent most of the cardiovascular diseases and contribute to the reduction of complications of acute coronary syndrome. Material and Methods: Our study is a prospective study that was conducted to the main military hospital of instruction of Tunis. Recruitment involved 122 coronary (n = 122) and 705 controls (n = 705) totaling a population of 827 subjects. Data collection concerned socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, habits and lifestyle, health status and biological assessment. Results: Our study reported a high prevalence of cardiovascular classic risk factor particularly overweight (62.3%), diabetes (63.1%) and hypertension (50%). In 55% of coronary patients, moderate to intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia was found, but it appears to be an independent risk factor. The results of our study show a significant difference in the genotypic frequencies of the C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene between the two populations, cases and controls. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndromes are the leading cause of sudden death in adults. The evaluation of risk factors after acute coronary syndrome episode is essential for a better management according to the recommendations of learned societies and standards of good practice.
A robust system for melanoma diagnosis using heterogeneous image databases  [PDF]
Khaled Taouil, Zied Chtourou, Nadra Ben Romdhane
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.36080
Abstract: Early diagnosis of melanoma is essential for the fight against this skin cancer. Many melanoma detection systems have been developed in recent years. The growth of interest in telemedicine pushes for the development of offsite CADs. These tools might be used by general physicians and dermatologists as a second advice on submission of skin lesion slides via internet. They also can be used for indexation in medical content image base retrieval. A key issue inherent to these CADs is non-heterogeneity of databases obtained with different apparatuses and acquisition techniques and conditions. We hereafter address the problem of training database heterogeneity by developing a robust methodology for analysis and decision that deals with this problem by accurate choice of features according to the relevance of their discriminative attributes for neural network classification. The digitized lesion image is first of all segmented using a hybrid approach based on morphological treatments and active contours. Then, clinical descriptions of malignancy signs are quantified in a set of features that summarize the geometric and photometric features of the lesion. Sequential forward selection (SFS) method is applied to this set to select the most relevant features. A general regression network (GRNN) is then used for the classification of lesions. We tested this approach with color skin lesion images from digitized slides data base selected by expert dermatologists from the hospital “CHU de Rouen-France” and from the hospital “CHU Hédi Chaker de Sfax-Tunisia”. The performance of the system is assessed using the index area (Az) of the ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve). The classification permitted to have an Az score of 89,10%.
Differential Sensibility of Information Processing Capacity with Age: Effects of Physical Activity and Task Complexity  [PDF]
Khadher Souha, Abedelmalek Salma, Grira Youssef, Bertsch Jean
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.21001
Abstract:

Study aim: Movement control systems are altered by the aging process. Numerous researches have explained the changes that occur with aging, and many of those changes are related to central nervous system (CNS) effects. This article evaluates the impact of age, the practice of regular physical activity, and the task complexity on decision-making ability. Methods: 120 healthy male subjects volunteered to participate in this study. They included 60 young adults (i.e., 30 sedentary and 30 active) (age: 24.35 ± 2.82 years), as well as 60 older adults (age: 66.42 ± 4.06 years) (i.e., 30 sedentary and 30 active). They performed two types of tasks (i.e., simple and complex) to measure reaction time (RT). Subjects perceive visual stimuli through the computer screen. Results: Our results showed that older active subjects have lower RT than older sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in young adults. Moreover, young adults had significantly lower RT than older subjects (p < 0.05). Besides, we observed a significant increase in the RT when task is complex compared to the simple task in all groups. In addition, active adults have better RT regardless the complexity of the task (i.e., simple or complex). Conclusions: Physical activity improves the decision making ability in older subjects.

Analysis of the Morpho-physiological Variation within Some Algerian Populations of Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L., Fabaceae)
Rachida Issolah,Nadra Khalfallah
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: As a part of the characterization and the valorization of plant genetic resources of fodder and pastoral interest in Algeria, fourteen natural populations of Hedysarum coronarium L. were subjected to a morpho-physiological study. Ecological factors (altitude and rainfall) of the originating environment of the different populations were considered. Thirty four characteristics related to seed weight, seedling emergence, vegetative development, flowering and formation of fruiting heads were included in the study. The results indicate the existence of variability within the species and between the populations, especially for the rate of seedlings at the second simple leaf stage, the development of the height axis, the end of the bloom and the full fruiting heads characteristics which are significant. This would be linked to the ecological factors of the environment of origin, especially the altitude which would constitute the most important factor. The results of principal components analysis show off some important characteristics, particularly the numbers of leaves and ramifications per plant, which oppose themselves to certain characteristics linked to the breeding (flowering and formation of fruiting heads). H. coronarium L. should be developed, particularly in the isolated and disinherited areas, where they could adapt themselves with advantage.
Testing Some Various Botanical Powders for Protection of Wheat Grain Against Trogoderma granarium Everts
Nadra H. Al-Moajel
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Powders prepared from parts of 11 different plant species were tested for their effectiveness on Trogoderma granarium adults and larvae reared on wheat grains under laboratory conditions. Capsicum frutescens caused highest (77-85%) and significant (F = 54.40) mortality of T. granarium adults at all concentrations within 7 days, followed by Lawsania inermis at all concentrations (73-78%) (F= 42.65), Allium ascalonicum at 2 , 6% concentrations (62-75%) (F=27.56), Mesua ferrea at all concentrations (60-65%) (F=17.12) and Raphanus sativus at 6% concentration (62%) (F=4.29), while control mortality averaged 42%. The other powders did not consistently differ from the control. The significant reduction in F1 progeny at 6% concentration of plant materials was in the order: R. sativus (70.6%) > Carthamus tinctorius (67.7%) > C. frutescens (58.9%) > A. ascalonicum (52.9%) > L. inermis (47.1%). On the other hand progeny emergence was significantly higher in Acacia farnesiana, Albizzia lebbeck and Delonix regia. A significant mortality of T. granarium larvae was observed at all concentrations (2, 4 and 6%) of C. tinctorius, L. inermis and Allium cepa treatments at 4 and 6% concentrations of D. regia and at 6% of C. frutescens and M. ferrea treatments. No significant effect was observed in Eruca sativa on adult mortality, larvae mortality and F1 progeny of treated adults. Thus C. frutescens and L. inermis had significant effect on mortality of adults and larvae and significantly reduced F1 progeny.
Prediction of maximal heart rate percent during constant intensity efforts on trained subjects  [PDF]
Chams Eddine Guinoubi, Ammar Nbigh, Youssef Grira, Raouf Hammami, Salma Abedelmalek
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.24031
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between %HRmax and %vVO2max at constant efforts made at different intensities. In randomized order, males healthy subjects (Age: 25 ± 7 years, Weight: 70 ± 11 kg, VO2max: 55 ± 8 ml·kg–1·min–1) were divided into two groups, a trained one with more than 3 training sessions per week (n = 10) a moderately trained one with 3 drives or less per week (n = 15). The difference between the two groups corresponds to a time to exhaustion above and below 40 min at 80% vVO2max. All subjects performed 5 tests with a gradual increase in speed of 1 km·h–1 every 2 min and 4 constant speed tests at 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% VO2max. All test were performed at the same time of day (i.e., 18:00 h). The results of this study showed that eighteen collective regressions including different independent variables were developed to predict %HRmax. The individual equations developed, have r values between 0.974 and 0.993 and Syx, between 1.2 and 1.9 ml·kg–1·min–1, they are more accurate than the collective equations (one equation for all subjects) with r values between 0.81 to 0.89 and Syx, between 4.1 and 5.3 ml·kg–1·min–1. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the model of predictions of %HRmax from %vVO2max in triangular tests were not appropriate for rectangular efforts. From the equations developed, we find that the time to exhaustion at 90% vVO2max is the best predictor of level of endurance then the time limit to 80% vVO2max.
A Role for CF1A 3′ End Processing Complex in Promoter-Associated Transcription
Nadra Al Husini,Paul Kudla,Athar Ansari
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003722
Abstract: The Cleavage Factor 1A (CF1A) complex, which is required for the termination of transcription in budding yeast, occupies the 3′ end of transcriptionally active genes. We recently demonstrated that CF1A subunits also crosslink to the 5′ end of genes during transcription. The presence of CF1A complex at the promoter suggested its possible involvement in the initiation/reinitiation of transcription. To check this possibility, we performed transcription run-on assay, RNAP II-density ChIP and strand-specific RT-PCR analysis in a mutant of CF1A subunit Clp1. As expected, RNAP II read through the termination signal in the temperature-sensitive mutant of clp1 at elevated temperature. The transcription readthrough phenotype was accompanied by a decrease in the density of RNAP II in the vicinity of the promoter region. With the exception of TFIIB and TFIIF, the recruitment of the general transcription factors onto the promoter, however, remained unaffected in the clp1 mutant. These results suggest that the CF1A complex affects the recruitment of RNAP II onto the promoter for reinitiation of transcription. Simultaneously, an increase in synthesis of promoter-initiated divergent antisense transcript was observed in the clp1 mutant, thereby implicating CF1A complex in providing directionality to the promoter-bound polymerase. Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) analysis revealed a physical interaction of the promoter and terminator regions of a gene in the presence of a functional CF1A complex. Gene looping was completely abolished in the clp1 mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose that the CF1A-dependent recruitment of RNAP II onto the promoter for reinitiation and the regulation of directionality of promoter-associated transcription are accomplished through gene looping.
Experimental Adsorption and Modelisation of CO2 on Adsorbents Collected from Elborma Field in South Tunisia  [PDF]
Souhail Bouzgarrou, Hadi Jedli, Nadra Stiti, Nourdine Hamdi, Khalifa Slimi, Mohamed Bagana
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2015.51006
Abstract: In order to select the best adsorbant for CO2 sequestration, this study deals the interaction between clay, Triassic sandstone and Jurassic evaporate and CO2. These materials have been used as sorbents. To choose the adequate geological layers for sequestration and with minimum risk of leakage, adsorbent characterizations were investigated using X-ray diffraction, SEM and surface area analysis, structural and textural shapes of these materials have been investigated too. The elution chromatography in gaseous phase has been employed to determine the adsorption isotherms of adsorbed CO2 for each adsorbent. Then, the treatment of the experimental data allowed us to compare each CO2/adsorbent couple. The adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Langmir and Freundlich models. A thermodynamic comparison between the different adsorbents will also be provided. Experimental results show that clay and Triassic sandstone have the highest rate of adsorption amount. It has been also found that the Langmuir model is the most appropriate one to describe the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption on clay. However, for the other adsorbents (i.e. Triassic sandstone and Jurassic evaporates) the two-models are adequate.
The Registration of the Mid-Paleocene Biotic Event (MPBE) in Tunisia
Narjess Karoui-Yaakoub,Moncef Sa?d Mtimet,Mohamed Hédi Negra,Chaima Grira,Wafa Gusemi
Paleontology Journal , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/760436
Abstract: In Tunisia, the Paleocene biomarkers are identified within the El Haria Formation shales. The Selandian is absent in most of the Paleocene outcrops and the Thanetian is unconformable to different stages of the Cretaceous. In the middle of Selandian, with the beginning of the Globanomalina pseudomenardii (P4) zone, we note that the assemblage of planktonic foraminifera becomes very poorly preserved and much less abundant than at the base. It is represented by rare species and there has been a start of the microfauna dissolution tests and an enrichment in iron oxides, silica, and gypsum crystals. The dissolution process is increasing more and more and a drop in the content of carbonates is clearly recorded at the top of Selandian. However, we note that some small benthic foraminifera belonging to the genera Lenticulina and Anomalina escape the dissolution and very few planktonic foraminifera belonging to the genera Subbotina are preserved. This dramatic and abnormal dissolution extends over a considerable thickness. These features could be an expression of the mid-Paleocene biotic event (MPBE), registered for the first time in Tunisia. This intense dissolution is caused probably by the change in the solubility of carbonates, which may be related to the changes in the deep-water circulation or to the change in the productivity of the surface waters. 1. Introduction The mid-Paleocene biotic event (MPBE) has been described at the beginning, offshore in some studies of deep-sea sections, at Shatsky Rise (Ocean Drilling Program, central Pacific) and Walvis Ridge (south Atlantic) (e.g., [1–5]). In 2007, this event was first recognized onshore, in the Zumaia section (western Pyrenees) (e.g., [6]). This event is characterized by the existence of a remarkable dissolution level in the carbonate sediments and it was short lived and probably related to hyperthermal events (e.g., [1–3, 7]). The aim of this paper is to show the micropaleontologic and geochemical analysis of the middle Paleocene series in the northwest of Tunisia (Tejerouine section), the evidence of the mid-Paleocene biotic event (MPBE) similar to the one described previously. We want to demonstrate that this event is also recorded in Tunisia and, therefore, is a worldwide event. It needs intensive work to get more information and to find far more interpretations. 2. Material and Methods The Paleocene series are complete, well exposed, and easily accessible, in the Tejerouine section. In the field, the sampling was done particularly in marls and was tighter at the boundaries. In the laboratory, samples
Endothelial Nitric Oxyde Synthase Gene Polymorphisms in a Tunisian Deep Vein Thrombosis Group  [PDF]
Nedra Grira, Nadia Ben Abdelhafidh, Manel Ayoub, Rihab Sendesni, Bochra Adib, Najla Stambouli, Salah Othmani, Zied Aouni, Chakib Mazigh
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.49004
Abstract: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a multi-factorial disease involving both genetic and acquired risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms G894T (rs1799983) and T-786C (rs2070744) to assess the role of these polymorphisms as a potential risk factor in the development of DVT. Methods: In this case-control study, we included 32 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 31 healthy control subjects. Clinical characteristics were collected. Lipids plasma concentrations were determined by the colorimetric method. Genotyping for the polymorphisms was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: We had found that the eNos G894T genotype G/T was significantly increasing the risk of DTV (P = 0.042, OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.09 to 13.92). But no association of the eNOS T-786C variant and DVT was found. For the eNOs T-786C polymorphism, the frequency of the T/T genotype was 87.5% in patients (with an allelic frequency of T Allele equal to 91%). No significant difference was noted between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The eNOs G894T polymorphism seems to be in association with DVT and may be considered as a risk factor, but this is not the case for the T-786C polymorphism.
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