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OALib Journal期刊

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Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Various Types of Brain Pathology in HIV-1 Infected Patients
H. Baran, J.A. Hainfellner and B. Kepplinger
International Journal of Tryptophan Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/IJTR.S10627
Abstract: Kynurenic acid, an intermediate metabolite of L-kynurenine, is a competitive antagonist of inotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors as well as a non competitive antagonist of 7 alpha nicotine cholinergic receptors and its involvement in memory deficit and cognition impairment has been suggested. Alterations of kynurenic acid metabolism in the brain after HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type-1) infection have been demonstrated. The present study evaluates the biosynthetic machinery of kynurenic acid e.g. the content of L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid, as well as the activity of enzymes synthesizing kynurenic acid, kynurenine aminotransferase I (KAT I) and kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of HIV-1 infected patients in relation to different types of pathology classified as follows: HIV in brain (HIV); opportunistic infection (OPP); infarction of brain (INF); malignant lymphoma of brain (LY); and glial dystrophy (GD) and of control (CO) subjects. Of all investigated pathologies the most frequent was OPP (65%), followed by HIV (26%), LY, INF, and GD (each 22%, respectively). Further, 68% of HIV-1 patients had bronchopneumonia, the highest incidence of which, at 60%, was seen in the OPP and LY group. Kynurenic acid was increased significantly in the frontal cortex of LY (392% of CO, P < 0.001), HIV (231% of CO, P < 0.01) and GD (193% of CO, P < 0.05), as well as in the cerebellum of GD (261% of CO, P < 0.01). A significant increase of L-kynurenine was observed in the frontal cortex of LY (385% of CO, P < 0.001) and INF (206% of CO, P < 0.01), and in the cerebellum of GD, LY, OPP and HIV (between 177% and 147% of CO). The KAT I activity increased significantly in the frontal cortex of all pathological subgroups, ie OPP = 420% > INF > LY > HIV > GD = 192% of CO. In the cerebellum, too, all pathological subgroups showed marked increase of KAT I activity (OPP = 320% > LY, HIV > GD > INF = 176% of CO). On contrary, the activity of KAT II was moderately, but significantly, higher in the frontal cortex of INF and OPP; in the cerebellum of HIV, OPP and LY it was comparable to the control, while mildly reduced in INF and GD. Interestingly, normal subjects with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia were characterized by high kynurenic acid metabolism in the brain, too. Correlation analyses between kynurenine parameters revealed association between high ratio KAT I/ KAT II and increased kynurenic acid level and lower L-kynurenine in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of HIV and LY subgroups. The present study revealed a different pattern of alteration of kynurenic acid metabolism in frontal cortex and cerebellum among investigated pathological subgroups of HIV-1 infected patients. Interestingly, a marked enhancement of kynurenic acid metabolism in the brain has been found with occurrence of bronchopneumonia. This finding indicates a notable association between impaired conditions of oxygen availability and enhance
Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Various Types of Brain Pathology in HIV-1 Infected Patients
H. Baran,J.A. Hainfellner,B. Kepplinger
International Journal of Tryptophan Research , 2012,
Abstract:
Fallbericht: Toxoplasmose/JC-Polymavirus-Koinfektion als prim r singul re kontrastaffine Raumforderung: Rasch letaler Verlauf einer neu diagnostizierten HIV-Infektion nach Grand-mal-Anfall
R?ssler K,Jasarevic Z,Hainfellner J,Lang A
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2010,
Abstract:
Paraneoplastische neurologische Syndrome
Lindeck-Pozza E,Oberndorfer S,Hainfellner JA,Grisold W
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2009,
Abstract: Paraneoplastische neurologische Syndrome (PNS) sind eine seltene Gruppe von Erkrankungen des zentralen und/oder des peripheren Nervensystems. Sie treten im Zusammenhang mit Tumoren auf, ohne direkt durch den Tumor selbst oder seine Metastasen bzw. durch toxische, metabolische oder vaskul re Effekte hervorgerufen zu werden. H ufig geht die neurologische Symptomatik der Diagnose des Tumors voraus. In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wurde bei einigen PNS eine Reihe von Antik rpern beschrieben, die gegen im Tumor exprimierte neurale Antigene (onkoneurale Antik rper) gerichtet sind. Paraneoplastische neurologische Syndrome treten in weniger als 1 % aller Patienten mit Tumoren auf. Dennoch sind Diagnosestellung und Behandlung wichtig, da PNS zu hochgradigen Beeintr chtigungen des Patienten führen k nnen und die richtige Diagnose h ufig zur Entdeckung bisher unerkannter Tumorerkrankungen führt.
Gonadal steroids levels and vitellogenesis in the formation of oocytes in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Characiformes)
Patrick Hainfellner,Thiago Gon?alves de Souza,Renata Guimar?es Moreira,Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to obtain information about the possible mechanisms related to poor reproductive performance in tropical rheophilic fish. To that effect, cages (Cs) and earthen ponds (EPs) were used as experimental systems to provide unsuitable and suitable conditions, respectively, for curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus) breeders. Fish were maintained under experimental conditions for 18 months, and during this period females were randomly sampled every two months for biometric analysis (n=30), blood (n=5/sampling) and ovary (n=5/sampling). After this period EPs females (EPFs) and Cs females (CFs) were submitted to the induced breeding experiments. The results showed that rearing curimbatá for such long time in a cage at this stocking density, reduces its growth, plasma E2 levels and vitellogenesis. During vitellogenesis, the mean plasma estradiollevels of CFs were three times lower than those of EPFs (P<0.01). CFs presented poorer results than EPFs for all the examined parameters of reproductive performance. Taken together these data showed that the reduced estradiol levels during vitellogenesis (and the consequently less intense transition from the previtellogenic to vitellogenic phase) and reduced amounts of yolk are mechanisms associated with the formation of low quality oocytes and shortened and delayed breeding season in this species. Moreover, our data showed that the onset of vitellogenesis (six months before the spawning season) must be considered as a key period related to the formation of oocytes of good quality, and adequate management should be provided throughout the year. Este estudo teve como objetivo gerar informa es básicas sobre os possíveis mecanismos relacionados com os resultados desfavoráveis obtidos com o desempenho reprodutivo em peixes reofílicos tropicais. Para isso tanques-rede (Cs) e viveiros escavados (EPs) foram utilizados como sistemas experimentais para propociar respectivamente condi es inadequadas e adequadas para reprodutores de Prochilodus lineatus. Os peixes foram mantidos por 18 meses em viveiros escavados (EPs) e tanques-rede (Cs), e durante este período, foram aleatoriamente coletados a cada dois meses para análise biométrica (n=30), coleta de sangue (n=5/tratamento) e amostragem do ovário (n=5/tratamento). Após este período as fêmeas mantidas em EPs (EPFs) e as fêmeas mantidas em Cs (CFs) foram submetidas aos experimentos de reprodu o induzida. Os resultados mostraram que manter curimbatás por este período em Cs, na densidade de estocagem utilizada, reduz seu crescimento, níveis plasmáticos de E
Gonadal steroids levels and vitellogenesis in the formation of oocytes in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Characiformes)
Hainfellner, Patrick;Souza, Thiago Gon?alves de;Moreira, Renata Guimar?es;Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada;Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo;
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-62252012005000021
Abstract: the objective of this study was to obtain information about the possible mechanisms related to poor reproductive performance in tropical rheophilic fish. to that effect, cages (cs) and earthen ponds (eps) were used as experimental systems to provide unsuitable and suitable conditions, respectively, for curimbatá (prochilodus lineatus) breeders. fish were maintained under experimental conditions for 18 months, and during this period females were randomly sampled every two months for biometric analysis (n=30), blood (n=5/sampling) and ovary (n=5/sampling). after this period eps females (epfs) and cs females (cfs) were submitted to the induced breeding experiments. the results showed that rearing curimbatá for such long time in a cage at this stocking density, reduces its growth, plasma e2 levels and vitellogenesis. during vitellogenesis, the mean plasma estradiollevels of cfs were three times lower than those of epfs (p<0.01). cfs presented poorer results than epfs for all the examined parameters of reproductive performance. taken together these data showed that the reduced estradiol levels during vitellogenesis (and the consequently less intense transition from the previtellogenic to vitellogenic phase) and reduced amounts of yolk are mechanisms associated with the formation of low quality oocytes and shortened and delayed breeding season in this species. moreover, our data showed that the onset of vitellogenesis (six months before the spawning season) must be considered as a key period related to the formation of oocytes of good quality, and adequate management should be provided throughout the year.
Spawning failure in Brycon amazonicus may be associated with ovulation and not with final oocyte maturation
Hainfellner, P.;De Souza, T.G.;Mu?oz, M.E.;Freitas, G. A.;Batlouni, S.R.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352012000200038
Abstract: avaliaram-se os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos com a falha na desova de matrinx?s (brycon amazonicus), submetidas à indu??o hormonal por extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa. para tal, após a extrus?o, os ovários foram coletados e analisados histomorfometricamente. nas fêmeas que n?o desovaram (fnds), a maioria dos ovócitos vitelogênicos remanescentes nos ovários atingiu a matura??o final, apresentando quebra de vesícula germinativa, mas n?o foram ovulados (nos). consequentemente, estas fêmeas apresentaram frequências mais baixas de folículos pós ovulatórios (5%) quando comparadas com a que desovou (fd) (23%). com rela??o aos nos, os valores se inverteram e a frequência destes nas fnds (21%) foi maior do que na fd (3%). estes dados indicam que as falhas na desova desta espécie est?o provavelmente relacionadas com a ovula??o, uma vez que a matura??o final dos ovócitos ocorre de forma similar tanto nas fnds como na fd. os dados sugerem que as substancias que promovem a ovula??o, como as prostaglandinas, podem aumentar o sucesso de desova em peixes reofílicos.
5-Aminolevulinic Acid Induced Fluorescence Is a Powerful Intraoperative Marker for Precise Histopathological Grading of Gliomas with Non-Significant Contrast-Enhancement
Georg Widhalm, Barbara Kiesel, Adelheid Woehrer, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Matthias Preusser, Christine Marosi, Daniela Prayer, Johannes A. Hainfellner, Engelbert Knosp, Stefan Wolfsberger
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076988
Abstract: Background Intraoperative identification of anaplastic foci in diffusely infiltrating gliomas (DIG) with non-significant contrast-enhancement on MRI is indispensible to avoid histopathological undergrading and subsequent treatment failure. Recently, we found that 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence can visualize areas with increased proliferative and metabolic activity in such gliomas intraoperatively. As treatment of DIG is predominantely based on histopathological World Health Organisation (WHO) parameters, we analyzed whether PpIX fluorescence can detect anaplastic foci according to these criteria. Methods We prospectively included DIG patients with non-significant contrast-enhancement that received 5-ALA prior to resection. Intraoperatively, multiple samples from PpIX positive and negative intratumoral areas were collected using a modified neurosurgical microscope. In all samples, histopathological WHO criteria and proliferation rate were assessed and correlated to the PpIX fluorescence status. Results A total of 215 tumor specimens were collected in 59 patients. Of 26 WHO grade III gliomas, 23 cases (85%) showed focal PpIX fluorescence, whereas 29 (91%) of 33 WHO grade II gliomas were PpIX negative. In intratumoral areas with focal PpIX fluorescence, mitotic rate, cell density, nuclear pleomorphism, and proliferation rate were significantly higher than in non-fluorescing areas. The positive predictive value of focal PpIX fluorescence for WHO grade III histology was 85%. Conclusions Our study indicates that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is a powerful marker for intraoperative identification of anaplastic foci according to the histopathological WHO criteria in DIG with non-significant contrast-enhancement. Therefore, application of 5-ALA optimizes tissue sampling for precise histopathological diagnosis independent of brain-shift.
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