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The Enterprise Risk Management and the Risk Oriented Internal Audit  [PDF]
Jie Liu
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.43036
Abstract: With the development of the economic globalization, the risks that enterprises faced are increasing. In order to cope with the risks, the enterprise risk management requires the internal audit. As an important part of the internal control, the risk oriented internal audit emerges to monitor the process of the enterprise risk management. So enterprises can control and evaluate the risks more and more suitable. The research focused on the importance of the risk oriented internal audit, and also studied the status of our risk oriented audit, then the research proposed some strategies and suggestions to promote the application of the risk oriented internal audit so as to ensure the effectiveness of the enterprise risk management.
The Efficiency Research on Stock Index Derivatives in a Bear Market—The Evidences from Hangseng Index Derivatives Markets  [PDF]
Jie Wei
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.42012
Abstract:

This paper examines the relationships among Hangseng index and its related derivatives in a bear market. The Johansen Co-integration and vector error correction model are used to analyze the relationships between markets. The main results are as follows: 1) The lead-lag relationships show that Hangseng index futures and option markets play a more important price discovery role; 2) The pricing efficiency test demonstrates that both Hangseng index futures and options markets are all efficient; 3) It proves that the existence of Hangseng index option market has a huge promotion effect to Hangseng cash and futures markets and increases their liquidity. This conclusion gives evidence thatChinashould launch the stock index options with the same underlying index in due time and form a pattern that stock index futures and option markets develop in parallel.

Application of Computer-Aided Drug Design to Traditional Chinese Medicine  [PDF]
Jie Yang
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.31A001
Abstract:

Computer-aided drug design (CADD) is an interdisciplinary subject, playing a pivotal role during new drug research and development, especially the discovery and optimization of lead compounds. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) modernization is the only way of TCM development and also an effective approach to the development of new drugs and the discovery of potential drug targets (PDTs). Discovery and validation of PTDs has become the “bottle-neck” restricted new drug research and development and is urgently solved. Innovative drug research is of great significance and bright prospects. This paper mainly discusses the “druggability” and specificity of PTDs, the “druglikeness” of drug candidates, the methods and technologies of the discovery and validation of PTDs and their application. It is very important to achieve the invention and innovation strategy “from gene to drug”. In virtue of modern high-new technology, especially CADD, combined with TCM theory, research and develop TCM and initiate an innovating way fitting our country progress. This paper mainly discusses CADD and their application to drug research, especially TCM modernization.

Reduced Partition Function Ratio in the Frequency Complex Plane: A Mathematical Approach  [PDF]
Jie Yuan
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.412049
Abstract: This paper gives a mathematical approach to calculate the fractionation factor of isotopes in a general cluster (also known as super-molecule), which composes of necessary chemical effect within three bonds outside the interested atom(s). The cluster might have imaginary frequencies after being optimized in quantum softwares. The approach includes the contribution of the difference, which is resulted from the substitution of heavy and light isotopes in the cluster, of vibrations of imaginary frequencies to give precise prediction of isotope fractionation factor. We call the new mathematical approximation “reduced partition function ratio in the frequency complex plane (RPFRC)”. If there is no imaginary frequency for a cluster, RPFRC is simplified to be Urey (1947) or Bigeleisen and Mayer (1947) formula. Final results of this new algorithm are in good agreement with those in earlier studies.
Influence of Mg2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ Cations on 13C-18O Bonds in Precipitated Aragonite, Calcite and Dolomite: An ab Initio Study  [PDF]
Jie Yuan
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.55023
Abstract: The influence of metal cations on 13C-18O bonds in carbonates is still under debate. This paper used ab initio method to investigate this kind of influence of Mg2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ cations on 13C-18O bonds in precipitated aragonite, calcite and dolomite. The polynomials of Δ47 and reduced partition function ratios (RPFRs) for 13/12C,
Slope Year for the U-Pb Dating Method and Its Applications  [PDF]
Jie Yuan
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.55032
Abstract: The slope year tslope for the U-Pb dating method is given as \"\", where λ238 and λ235 are the decay constants for 238U and 235U, respectively, and k is the slope of the tangent line at a point on either the Concordia or Discordia line. These two lines are determined by the
The Chinese Political Dissidents in Exile: Struggle for a Sustainable and Relevant Movement  [PDF]
Jie Chen
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.61006
Abstract: The overseas Chinese democracy movement started in the early 1980s and comprised of the networks, organisations and campaigns of those mainland Chinese activists, in exile mostly in the West, particularly the United States. These dissidents were mainly Democracy Wall (1978-79) veterans, the Tiananmen Square event (1989) student leaders and intellectuals, and other activists who became politicised while studying or living abroad. This paper investigates the reflection and readjustment of the political exiles to halt the decline of their movement over the past decade, to make it more sustainable and relevant to both their host nations and conditions in China in the new century. While the movement has little direct role to play in China’s democratization or its host states’ policies towards China, the exile community has become more flexible and adaptable in both strategic direction and tactical approaches, with more efforts to: intervene and support new social contention in China, establish specialized campaign agencies, experiment with new models of organizational development, influence domestic and international public opinions, and rejuvenate solidarity with the evolving civil societies in Taiwan and Hong Kong on the basis of shared political values more than “one China” sentiment. The significance of these new dynamics, in terms of the movement’s survival and impact, can only be appreciated by breaking free from state-centric perspectives which have already been challenged in the literature on transnational social movements and exile politics.
Some substrates of P-glycoprotein targeting β-amyloid clearance by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)/membrane-interaction (MI)-QSAR analysis  [PDF]
Tongyang Zhu, Jie Chen, Jie Yang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.49116
Abstract:

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) putatively involves a compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). In particular, the importance of brain-to-blood transport of brain-derived metabolites across the BBB has gained increasing attention as a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD, which is characterized by the aberrant polymerization and accumulation of specific misfolded proteins, particularly β-amyloid (Aβ), a neuropathological hallmark of AD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a major component of the BBB, plays a role in the etiology of AD through Aβ clearance from the brain. Our QSAR models on a series of purine-type and propafenone-type substrates of P-gp showed that the interaction between P-gp and its modulators depended on Molar Refractivity, LogP, and Shape Attribute of drugs it transports. Meanwhile, another model on BBB partitioning of some compounds revealed that BBB partitioning relied upon the polar surface area, LogP, Balaban Index, the strength of a molecule combined with the membrane-water complex, and the changeability of the structure of a solute-membrane-water complex. The predictive model on BBB partitioning contributes to the discovery of some molecules through BBB as potential AD therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the interaction model of P-gp and modulators for treatment of multidrug resistance (MDR) indicates the discovery of some molecules to increase Aβ clearance from the brain and reduce Aβ brain

An Efficient α-Phosphoryloxylation of Ketones  [PDF]
Ye Pu, Jie Yan
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.11001
Abstract: An efficient α-phosphoryloxylation of ketones has been developed. When ketones were treated with (diace-toxyiodo)benzene and phosphates in CH2Cl2 at room temperature, the α-phosphoryloxylaction of ketones was easily be carried out, providing the ketol phosphates in good yields.
Heuristics for Production Allocation and Ordering Policies in Multi-Plants with Capacity  [PDF]
Jie Zang, Jiafu Tang
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.31002
Abstract: Joint decisions in production allocation and ordering policies for single and multiple products in a production-distribution network system consisting of multiple plants are discussed, production capacity constraints of multi-plants and unit production capacity for producing a product are considered. Based on the average total cost in unit time, the decisive model is established. It tries to determine the production cycle length, delivery frequency in a cycle from the warehouse to the retailer and the economic production allocation. The approach hinges on providing an optimized solution to the joint decision model through the heuristics methods. The heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the single-product joint decision model and the multi-products decision problem. Simulations on different sizes of problems have shown that the heuristics is effective, and in general more effective than Quasi-Newton method (QNM).
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