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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B among Blood Donors in Mbuji-Mayi, “Case of Dipumba General Hospital” (DRC)  [PDF]
Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Kanyiki Katala Moise, Banza Ndala Deca Blood, Ntumba Mukendi Kennedy, Jean Mukendi Mukendi Réne, Kolela Kolela Alain, Kaya Tompa Brigitte, Gabriel Mbuyi Lubemba, Bukasa Lumbayi Laurent, Kabamba Nzaji Michel
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103503
Abstract:
Seroprevalence among blood donors is a major public health problem, both in developed and developing countries, in its magnitude. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in blood donors. This is a descriptive study carried out in the city of Mbuji-Mayi at the General Hospital of Dipumba in blood donors (family, volunteer and remunerated) recorded from 01/to31/December 2016; the data were collected in a transverse fashion. The following observations were made: During the study period, 1584 blood donors were registered. After analyzing the data, the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in blood donors was 2.2%, 77.8% were male (sex ratio M/F 3.5 and voluntary donors were 50.4%.
Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in Mbujimayi City, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Kanyiki Katala Moise, Banza Ndala Deca Blood, Mukendi Mukendi Jean René, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Mukendi Ntumba Kennedy, Kaya Tompa Brigitte, Ilunga Bimpa Cedric, Kolela Kolela Alain, Mulewu Ngandu Hypolitte, Kabamba Nzaji Michel
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103501
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to identify and explain the factors influencing the birth of underweight children in the city of Mbuji-Mayi. Methods: This is not a paired case-control study of births registered from 1 to June 30, 2015 in maternity hospitals in three health zones selected for this study, cases are all children born with low weight and witnesses are all children born with a normal weight is 2500 g and more. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: The proportion of LBW was 14.5%. The risk factors identified in this study are: Unmarried women [ORa = 2.92 (1.41 to 5.61)], not Luba Tribal origin [ORa = 1.71 (1.02 to 2.872)], anemia of pregnancy [ORa = 2.92 (1.79 to 4.75)], the non-attendance of the CPN [ORa = 1.92 (1.16 to 3.17)], preterm labor [ORa = 3, 11 (1.79 to 5.41)], diabetic mothers [ORa = 3.44 (1.91 to 6.21)], the history of malaria [ORa = 2 (1.23 to 3.26) ], multiparity [ORa = 2 (1.23 to 3.26)] and threatened abortion histories [ORa = 6.17 (2.82 to 13.52)] had statistical significantly associated with links é FPN.
Frequency and Causes of Vaginal Hemorrhage outside Pregnancy in Women of Reproductive Age at Bonzola Hospital, Mbuji-Mayi, DRC  [PDF]
Kaya Tompa Brigitte, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Nzembu Kabwasa Peter, Kanyiki Katala Moses, Ntumba Mukendi Kennedy, Jean Mukendi Mukendi Rene, Kolela Kolela Alain, Ilunga Bimpa Cedric, Cibangu Muana Wamuenyi Franck, Kaseka Ciswaka Jeanne, Amuli Jiwe Jean-Pierre
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104940
Abstract:
Vaginal haemorrhages outside pregnancy in women of childbearing age are a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of vaginal haemorrhage outside pregnancy. This is a descriptive study conducted in the city of Mbuji-Mayi at Bonzola General Hospital, registered from 01 to 31 December 2017; the data were collected transversally. The following observations were made during the study period; 174 women of childbearing age were registered. After analyzing the data, the incidence of vaginal haemorrhage in women of childbearing age was 15.8% and the main causes were: cervical cancer: 32.7% and uterine myoma 22.5%.
Analysis of an Active Fault Geometry Using Satellite Sensor and DEM Data: Gaziköy-Saros Segment (NAFZ), Turkey  [PDF]
Sinasi Kaya
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46086
Abstract: In this study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT HRV Panchromatic data were analysed to determine the geometry of an active fault segment (the Ganos segment) in Gazikoy-Saros region, west of Marmara Sea, Turkey. Gazikoy-Saros/Ganos segment is a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). North-Anatolian fault is considered to be one of the most important active strike-slip faults in the world. Thus far in relevant researches based on Gazikoy-Saros segment a single straight fault line representation is used on the fault descriptive geological maps. This study, with the aid of enhanced remotely sensed data aims to reveal the linear details of the NAFZ fault segment, which subsequently were superposed with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. Respectively, using these data the surface geometry expression of Gazikoy-Saros fault segment was detailed and remapped. According to the results of the analysis two small releasing steps were identified on this segment. The first one is situated between Mürseli and Güzelkoy villages, and the second one is between Mürseli and Yorguc villages. In addition to this, it is found that the fault strike bends approximately 7° further to in south-eastern (SE) direction between Yenikoy and Sofular villages. This angular change was defined with the advantage of multi-angular viewing capability of the multi-satellite sensors and DEM data. The newly generated surface geometry expression of Ganos segment was compared with Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity vectors.

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Display No Preference for Chaperone Binding In Vivo
Hedi Hegyi,Peter Tompa
PLOS Computational Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000017
Abstract: Intrinsically disordered/unstructured proteins (IDPs) are extremely sensitive to proteolysis in vitro, but show no enhanced degradation rates in vivo. Their existence and functioning may be explained if IDPs are preferentially associated with chaperones in the cell, which may offer protection against degradation by proteases. To test this inference, we took pairwise interaction data from high-throughput interaction studies and analyzed to see if predicted disorder correlates with the tendency of chaperone binding by proteins. Our major finding is that disorder predicted by the IUPred algorithm actually shows negative correlation with chaperone binding in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and metazoa species. Since predicted disorder positively correlates with the tendency of partner binding in the interactome, the difference between the disorder of chaperone-binding and non-binding proteins is even more pronounced if normalized to their overall tendency to be involved in pairwise protein–protein interactions. We argue that chaperone binding is primarily required for folding of globular proteins, as reflected in an increased preference for chaperones of proteins in which at least one Pfam domain exists. In terms of the functional consequences of chaperone binding of mostly disordered proteins, we suggest that its primary reason is not the assistance of folding, but promotion of assembly with partners. In support of this conclusion, we show that IDPs that bind chaperones also tend to bind other proteins.
Structural Disorder in Eukaryotes
Rita Pancsa, Peter Tompa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034687
Abstract: Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels – and highest variability – of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established.
Analysis of computational approaches for motif discovery
Nan Li, Martin Tompa
Algorithms for Molecular Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7188-1-8
Abstract: For the past decade, research on identifying regulatory elements, notably the binding sites for transcription factors, has been very intense. The problem, usually abstracted as a search problem, takes as the input a set of sequences, which encode the regulatory regions of genes that are putatively co-regulated. The output consists of the regulatory elements (short words in the input sequences) and a motif model that profiles them.Numerous computational tools have been developed for this task. Natually, evaluation of these tools is becoming vital in this area. Recently, Tompa et al. [1] report the results of one such assessment. In this assessment, some popular tools are tested on datasets of four species: human, mouse, fly and yeast. Each dataset contains a set of sequences planted with binding sites of one transcription factor. The binding sites are provided in the TRANSFAC database [2]. Details of the datasets are explained in [1].Besides the result of the assessment, this work also raises questions about the approaches used by these tools. We discuss some interesting questions that arise from further analysis of the assessment in [1]. We believe that techniques that have been adopted in search are very powerful, as proven by these eminent tools. But the definition of the search problem, especially the formulation of objective functions, leaves space for substantial improvement in the performance of the motif discovery tool.The first step to design a new algorithm for the motif discovery problem is to choose a proper objective function. This is critical because the objective function implements the designer's understanding of the protein-DNA interaction model. Searching for candidates that optimize the objective function is a major step to pull out the candidate binding sites from the background sequences. An ideal objective function should be able to assign the optimal score to the true motif binding sites and nowhere else.Although there are numerous tools availa
Measuring the accuracy of genome-size multiple alignments
Amol Prakash, Martin Tompa
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-6-r124
Abstract: With the rapid sequencing of so many related genomes, comparative genomics has emerged as one of the most important areas of computational biology. The workhorse of comparative genomics is the multiple sequence alignment, particularly whole-genome multiple sequence alignments such as those provided by the UCSC Genome Browser [1]. These alignments are marvelous tools for anyone working in comparative genomics. More and more sophisticated analyses rely implicitly on the correctness of these alignments. For example, it is already standard practice to search for functional genomic elements (more precisely, those constrained by purifying selection) by scanning a whole-genome alignment, looking for regions that are better conserved across the species than expected [2-12].When such methods find surprisingly well conserved sites across all aligned species, that portion of the alignment is likely to be correct. Conversely, in regions where the sequences are misaligned, these methods may fail to find conserved sites that exist. Even the designers of the alignment algorithms and genome browsers would not claim that the alignments are correct at all sites across entire genomes. How can users decide which portions of the alignment are trustworthy and which portions less so, particularly in noncoding regions?We present a method to assess a whole-genome multiple sequence alignment, classifying it into well aligned and suspiciously aligned regions. Before carrying out any further analysis that relies on the alignment's correctness, such as those listed above, the user should be aware of possible misalignment in those regions classified as suspicious. In addition, efforts should be made to either realign the regions with suspicious alignments or increase the confidence in their current alignments by other evidence.Without any well established methodology for estimating the quality of the whole-genome alignments, scientists have either trusted the alignments completely or developed t
Which Are the Factors Associated to Child Mistreatment? Use of a Routinely Collected Specific Dataset for Surveillance in a Belgian Pediatric Unit  [PDF]
Christelle Senterre, Brigitte Vanthournout
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612171
Abstract: Introduction: Child abuse is a serious health problem with compelling evidence that the phenomenon is common throughout the world. The Center “SOS enfants ULB” is a specialized team, established in a pediatric ward, which had mission to prevent and to treat the situations of children victims of physical, sexual, psychological abuse or of neglect. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of 439 children hospitalized for (suspicion of) maltreatment and to investigate different factors potentially associated with the children at risk of neglect or maltreatment, the children victims of neglect and the physically maltreated children. Methods: Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression models with clustered robust standard error were applied to assess the relationship between the three types of mistreatment and the potential associated factors. Results: Maltreatment was observed for almost one in two children (48.7%) and approximately four on ten (41.5%) were considered at risk. Physical abuse was the most prevalent (57.9%) among the maltreated children and neglect was the second most prevalent (37.4%) form of maltreatment. Regarding the criteria leading to hospitalisation, at least one protective criterion was observed for a little more than eight children on ten. The parental criteria have shown that social problems and conjugal conflicts were the most prevalent for this category of hospitalisation criteria. Conclusion: These data, concerning the hospitalized children for which there is (suspicion of) mistreatment, collected by this team make important contribution to describing child maltreatment and its associated factors. Despite the fact that these hospitalized cases may be probably more serious than those who were not reported, every event, however small it may be, should be known for better organizing each level of prevention.
Can We Manage a Balance between Care and Employment?
—The Compatibility of Informal Care and Employment at the Alpen-Adria University
 [PDF]

Nadja Frate, Brigitte Jenull
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.57020
Abstract: Thedemographic trend confronts the younger generation with the decision to care for family members. The care of a loved one is seen as not only a challenge but also a burden. The aim of the present study is to investigate the compatibility of care and employment in the university context by a multilevel triangulations design. First we determined the amount of persons concerned by all staff members of the Alpen-Adria University (AAU) (n = 919). Subsequently we discussed the problems in depth with ten employees. The results show that 11% of the employees are caring for a family member and are exposed to a variety of burden. In addition to physical and mental disorders, there are changes in the work style. The affected employees kept the care secret and formulated fears of job loss and degradation of efficiency. These results formed the basis for expert interviews (n = 7) and the development of concrete solutions.
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