A brief review of the works of the author and his co-authors on the application of nonlinear analysis, numerical and analytical methods for solving the nonlinear inverse problems (synthesis problems) for optimizing the different types of radiating systems, is presented in the paper. The synthesis problems are formulated in variational statements and further they are reduced to research and numerical solution of nonlinear integral equations of Hammerstein type. The existence theorems are proof, the investigation methods of nonuniqueness problem of solutions and numerical algorithms of finding the optimal solutions are proved.
The facts regarding to the early stages of algae evolution in the Precambrian are very rare (more than 542 million years ago). In this paper, the author describes the first discovered evidence that the sexual reproduction process took place one billion years ago. As it is known, sexual reproduction led to the diversity of living organisms on the Earth, and in general, accelerated the evolution process.
Primitive man have managed to survive in the rigorous climatic conditions of the arctic regions in northeast Asia owing to the hunting for mammoth, bison, wooly rhinoceros and other Pleistocene mammals with the assistance of the laika, a domesticated wolf. This is how the colonization of the Arctic began. The domestic dog appeared in this region about 25 - 30 thousand years ago as a result of the severe climatic conditions in which both hunting tribes and the ancestors of the domestic dog had to live. A wolf is a predator, an able hunter. Therefore, most likely wolves were originally trained to hunt with humans—the leaders of the hunting pack. Thus, in northeast Asia, there was a direct relationship between man’s colonization of the Arctic, the appearance of the hunting dog, and a decrease in the number of mammoth, bison, and other large animals in the region, as a result of hunting when whole herds were killed.
Calcified rock-forming marine filamented benthic micro- and macrophytes of Dzhelindia Kolosov, 1970 (Figure 1(а)) and Chaptchaica Kolosov, 1975 (Figure 1(b)) genera, thrived in Neoproterozoic (1000-541 million years ago) Siberia together with cyanobacteria. Their belonging to Rhodophyta is well-grounded. These and other Neoproterozoic rodofits, as well as Epiphyton Bornemann 1886 (Figure 1(c)) and other Early Cambrian (541-513 million years ago) benthic algae, oxygenating floor of epicontinental sea basin, formed conditions, favorable for the animals. In combination with other biotic, and such abiotic factors as: equatorial position and tectonic feature of Siberian platform; volcanism; transgression of the sea; diversity of ecologic niches, these conditions were prerequisites of skeleton and shell acquisition by Early Cambrian animals, and as a consequence, accelerated morphologic evolution, increased diversity of taxons of different groups of animals.