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A New Technique for Estimating the Lower Bound of the Trust-Region Subproblem  [PDF]
Xinlong Luo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.24052
Abstract: Trust-region methods are popular for nonlinear optimization problems. How to determine the predicted reduction of the trust-region subproblem is a key issue for trust-region methods. Powell gave an estimation of the lower bound of the trust-region subproblem by considering the negative gradient direction. In this article, we give an alternate way to estimate the same lower bound of the trust-region subproblem.
Statistical Application in Economics  [PDF]
June Luo
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.21013
Abstract: Statisticians have recently proposed some methods for ranking the gene variables with outlier expressions. The major attraction of these methods is their ability to select the variables which show systematic decrease or increase in only a subset of samples in the disease group. In order to fully account for the outliers, in this article, we truncate the expression values and propose an alternative method to rank the variables with systematic increase or decrease. The proposed statistic is very simple to implement. Simulations and real data study show that the proposed statistic has a more powerful ability to rank the variables than some methods in literature.
Measurement Method of Graviton Velocity and Thought on Correcting Lorentz Transformation——The Superluminal Neutrino’s Influence on Special Relativity and Other Physical Theories  [PDF]
Ping’an Luo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34042
Abstract: After discovery of the superluminal particle and consideration on development of contemporary physical theory research, also on the existing errors and omissions, the principle of constant light speed is found not a necessary condition in derivation of Lorentz Transformation; instead, this thesis proposes the velocity of graviton may feature superluminal, constant velocity in different directions, and independence of inertial reference frame speeds. This is an optional thought of correction. According serial hypothesis, an equation of graviton’s motion trace, i.e., the central curve of nebula density, is established for spiral galaxy. Thus we gain the method to measure velocity of graviton. If to totally avoid problem of limit speed, we have to search for independent of inertia frames, and relevant to space-time properties. Regarding current difficulties of singular points in the Theory of Limited Universe, this thesis points out that the document [1] is the best solution to these difficulties.
The Xinshu 新書 Reexamined: An Emphasis on Usability over Authenticity  [PDF]
Luo Shaodan
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.21002
Abstract:
A collection of texts conventionally ascribed to Jia Yi 賈誼 (200-168 BC), the Xinshu 新書 has been subjected to an ages-long debate regarding its authenticity. The present study disclaims the discovery of any adequate evidence to prove the text trustworthy; but it finds the arguments for its forgery ill founded. Rather than present merely an account of this dilemma or attempt to corroborate either position in the debate, this paper argues against the approach in textual criticism that views early texts through a dualistic prism of authenticity vs. forgery. A case of forgery should be established upon no less concrete evidence than should one of authenticity. The mere lack of positive evidence can hardly be regarded or used as any negative evidence to disprove a text. Given the dilemma, the paper suggests treating the Xinshu nonetheless as a workable and even currently reliable source for our study of Jia Yi until that very day dawns upon us with any unequivocal evidence of its forgery detected or, better still, excavated.
FDI in Services and Manufacturing Efficiencies in Host Countries: Evidence from China  [PDF]
Libin Luo
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B037
Abstract:

The paper studies the correlations between FDI in services and manufacturing efficiencies in host countries. First a theoretical analysis is presented on the direct and indirect channels through which FDI in services enhances manufacturing efficiencies in host countries. Then the forward linkages and backward linkages between FDI in services and manufacturing sector in host countries are tested empirically using China’s industrial panel data. We find that FDI in services has positive forward and backward linkage effects on China’s manufacturing sector, with forward linkages stronger than backward linkages, and the wholesale, retail, trade and restaurant sector has the strongest linkage effects.

Code Switching in Sons and Lovers  [PDF]
Dimin Luo
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/als.2013.14010
Abstract:

Lawrence’s writing is heavily influenced by his social background. He is in an incompatible family, for his parents come from different social classes. His sensitiveness to class distinctions brought about by his family background is deeply rooted in his writings. Novel Sons and Lovers is this typical work. One of the distinctive features of the novel is the use of two language varieties which expresses the bilingual situation of the Morels’ family in Sons and Lovers. The writer Lawrence alternatively uses two language varieties in dialogues to reveal the psychology of the characters and the most characteristic of his theme: class conflict. This study researches into the use of language varieties of three major characters (Mr. Mo-rel, Mrs. Morel and their son Paul) in Sons and Loversfrom the viewpoint of code switching to discover how class conflict is presented by alternative use of language varieties. To appreciate and deeply understand the novel, it is necessary to know the application of code switching in this work.

Information Literacy in Chinese Studies  [PDF]
Luo Shaodan
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.32008
Abstract: The present essay proposes a dual stratification of information literacy (IL). Information search in academia generally takes place in specific subject areas. While recognizing the importance of basic IL in one’s search for information, the essay observes that the search cannot be complete without the awareness of what information to seek in that particular subject field as well as the ability to locate and evaluate information in the field. Each subject area may need to have its own definition of IL. Such IL in a given area may largely overlap with, and yet significantly differ from, the general IL that is, to quote the definition by ALA (American Library Association), “common to all disciplines.” The essay uses the field of Chinese studies to illustrate the point and, accordingly, suggests ways of IL instruction that is suitable to Chinese studies.
Speed Testing of the Graviton and the Movement Track of Graviton in the Spiral Galaxy  [PDF]
Pingan Luo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.412200
Abstract:

According to a series of hypothesis, for the spiral galaxy, a mathematical equation of the graviton movement track is built, it is also the central curve of the nebulae density distribution, which offers the method to measure the moving speed of the graviton. Using the observed images of the M51 galaxy, it confirms that the graviton movement curve in the spiral galaxy conforms to the image, \"\" QUOTE QUOTEis a constant. It points out that by measuring the rate of angular motion of the equivalent center in the galaxy, the real speed of the graviton can be estimated. Under the measuring condition of the M51,\"\". The theory presented in this article also helps to calculate the rotation speed of a galaxy, provided the graviton speed is known for certain. With the model in this article and fitting data from the observation images of M51 galaxy, the guess which says “the moving speed of graviton is a constant” is supported unprecedentedly by observation data. It is for the first time that the upper limit of graviton speed, i.e. no more than \"\" times of light speed, is obtained from observation data. At the same time, the paper puts forward one possible way that the lower limit of graviton speed may be measured. And a new idea also brought forward in the paper is that the rotational angular velocity

Influence of Infinitesimal Neglected Effects by Current Theory of Gravitation and Experiments on the Stability of the Universe  [PDF]
Ping’an Luo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.515145
Abstract: From the hypotheses compatible with microphysics theory, this paper establishes a new theoretical model of static universal gravitation and deduces new formula of the theory of universal gravitation. In a first order approximation, the new formula shows the inverse-square law consistent with Newton formula, which would indicate that the new theory is consistent with the experimental results that can be reasonably explained by the current theory of gravitation. The parameters and higher order terms among the coefficients of this paper reveal the numerous infinitesimal neglected effects by current theory and experiments. In the first order approximation, the meanings of the physical parameters included in coefficients are analyzed and the infinitesimal neglected effects are applied in the study of the stability of the universe, which overcomes the difficulty of singularity in the cosmology of Newton, Einstein, etc., and concludes that the boundary of universe is unlimited, without any need of the hypothesis that the universe starts off with the big bang. Therefore, this paper establishes a harmonious and ingenious relationship between microphysics and macrophysics theories. In addition, through the analysis of the formula derived from the theory of this paper, it is found that: in general, the gravitational constant is not always a constant in the gravitation formula requiring high precision; from the perspective of the interaction of field quantum, the acting force may not be equal to counter-acting force under the interaction of indirect contact; the gravity process is an exothermic process; in the gravitational process, annihilation effects may exist amongst gravitons; reciprocal translation may exist amongst fundamental forces.
Motion Law of Graviton in Three-Dimensional Space and Its Influence on Star Distribution of Spiral Galaxy  [PDF]
Pingan Luo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.517186
Abstract: According to some fundamental hypotheses compatible with microphysics theory in allusion to property of graviton shot by the spiral galaxy, we set up a motion trace equation of graviton in the three-dimensional space, concluding method for measuring the velocity of graviton. This theory reveals formation mechanism of symmetric rotating arm image of the spiral galaxy. The rotating arm image conforms to Archimedes spiral. Under the condition of using dynamic constraints, the image that astrolabe is in thin-disk structure is naturally obtained. And then, we also deduce the law that astrolabe thickness h is inversely proportional to the square root of the distance rxy between astrolabe and galaxy center, according with actual crossrange galaxy observation image excellently. This article, by utilizing several typical galaxy observation images with completely different appearances and shapes, verifies the motion trace law of graviton in three-dimensional space. And the theoretical simulation data meet observation image data very well. As per the discovery in the simulation of three-dimensional theoretical model, changes of parameters in theoretical model will exert a great influence on the shape of galaxy. This theory owns exclusively important meaning, not only to astrophysics, but also to reconstruction and development of relativity theory and the whole basic physics theory, as well as breaking through the current dilemma in studying graviton property.
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