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On the first eigenvalue of the Steklov eigenvalue problem for the infinity Laplacian
An Le
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2006,
Abstract: Let $Lambda_p^p$ be the best Sobolev embedding constant of $W^{1,p}(Omega )hookrightarrow L^p(partialOmega)$, where $Omega$ is a smooth bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^N$. We prove that as $p o infty$ the sequence $Lambda_p$ converges to a constant independent of the shape and the volume of $Omega$, namely 1. Moreover, for any sequence of eigenfunctions $u_p$ (associated with $Lambda_p$), normalized by $| u_p |_{L^infty(partialOmega)}=1$, there is a subsequence converging to a limit function $u_infty$ which satisfies, in the viscosity sense, an $infty$-Laplacian equation with a boundary condition.
Intrinsic Prices of Risk  [PDF]
Truc Le
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.45029
Abstract: We review the nature of some well-known phenomena such as volatility smiles, convexity adjustments and parallel derivative markets. We propose that the market is incomplete and postulate the existence of intrinsic risks in every contingent claim as a basis for understanding these phenomena. In a continuous time framework, we bring together the notion of intrinsic risk and the theory of change of measures to derive a probability measure, namely risk-subjective measure, for evaluating contingent claims. This paper is a modest attempt to prove that measure of intrinsic risk is a crucial ingredient for explaining these phenomena, and in consequence proposes a new approach to pricing and hedging financial derivatives. By adapting theoretical knowledge to practical applications, we show that our approach is consistent and robust, compared with the standard risk-neutral approach.
Application of Null Space Based Behavior Control to the Swarm Robot’s Control  [PDF]
Le Thi Thuy Nga, Le Hung Lan
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2015.53009
Abstract: This paper proposes a solution to controls warm robots in an effort to avoid obstacles, moving to the goal by the method of Null Space based Behavior (NSB) control of an individual in the swarm. This paper also provides the stability analysis of the converging process by investigating the relationship between single agents, and the analysis result is proved by using the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation results in two-dimensional space have confirmed the obtained theoretical results.
Research and Development Cooperation between Rivals: A Novel Motive beyond New Knowledge  [PDF]
Le Duc Niem
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.21006
Abstract: The paper examines a motive for R&D cooperation with a rival by considering the behavior of a quality follower in a model of vertically differentiated products. We show that, in some settings, a quality follower has an incentive to contribute money to R&D activity of a quality leader with the sole purpose of making the leader’s products even better. The reason behind this motivation is that the leader’s product quality is serving as an upper-constraint in the decision process of the follower regarding product quality selection. Thus, if the leader’s product quality is raised both firms will be better off.
MATLAB Simulink Simulation Platform for Photonic Transmission Systems  [PDF]
Le Nguyen BINH
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.22012
Abstract: High speed and ultra-high capacity optical communications have emerged as the essential techniques for backbone global information transmission networks. As the bit rate of the transmission system gets higher and higher 40 Gb/s to 100 Gb/s the modeling of proposed modulation techniques is very important so as to avoid costly practical demonstration. The search for a universal modeling platform for such systems is urgent. Matlab Simulink has become the universal mathematical and modeling tools in most universities and re-search laboratories around the world. This paper thus describes the modeling techniques for advanced photonic transmission systems and Simulink is proven to be very effective platform for development of photonic communications systems due its comprehensive blocksets. The simulation is based mainly on the physical phenomena and understanding of its concepts of communications and photonics. Simulink models are given as examples of various sub-systems of the photonic transmission systems. Some simulated trans-mission performances are demonstrated as examples of final results obtained from Simulink models of the transmission systems.
Routing and Wavelength Assignment in GMPLS-based 10 Gb/s Ethernet Long Haul Optical Networks with and without Linear Dispersion Constraints  [PDF]
Le Nguyen BINH
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.12020
Abstract: Given a set of lightpath connection requests in an all-10 Gb/s optical dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) Ethernet network, lightpaths are designed. In addition the wavelength channels are assigned subject to minimization of the channel blocking and provisional requests satisfying the limits due to accumulative linear dispersion effects over the hops. This paper proposes a routing and wavelength assignment scheme for DWDM long-haul optical networks that includes routing, assignment and reservation of different wavelength channels operating under the Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) environment. The GMPLS framework can offer an approach to implement IP over DWDM with variable weighting assignments of routes based on the limitations due to residual dispersion accumulated on the lightwave path. The modeling is implemented under the framework of an object-oriented modeling platform OMNeT++. Network performance tests are evaluated based mainly on a long-haul terrestrial fiber mesh network composed of as well as three topologies structured as chain, ring, and mesh configurations. Blocking probability of lightpath connection requests are examined with the average link utilization in the network employing variable number of wavelength channels in association with the limits of route distance due to linear chromatic and polarization mode dispersion effects.
Effect of Quality Assurance (QA) BDS on The Export Activities of SME in The Plastic Sub-Sector  [PDF]
Le Nu Minh Phuong
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.34046
Abstract: The paper aims at analyzing general characteristics of the plastic sub-sector in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), in-depth quality assurance (QA) implication in the sub-sector, how plastic manufacturers use business development services to improve QA and which QA variables are strongly affected export involvement. Author’s survey had assessed to plastic manufacturers and service suppliers to determine the position of demand and supply, then find the potential improvement in BDS market for both demand and supply size. To recognize the attitude of plastic manufacturers in terms of QA awareness and identify the difficulties and weakness of service suppliers are formulated the general picture of QA in plastic sub-sector. The binominal logit model is used to assess the influence of explanatory variables, which are mainly concerned QA variables, on the probability that firm involve in international market. Our econometric analysis indicates that quality assurance level, automatic level, source of machine and ratio of quality assurance personnel are positively significant for the likelihood of international business. Interestingly, non-export group are likely to use quality assurance business development services rather than export group. QA business development services attract more concern for donors and government due to low value added for plastic exporters’ use.
Effects of omacor® on left ventricular remodelling consecutive to post myocardial infarction special issue-myocardial infarction  [PDF]
Bruno Le Grand
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35A007
Abstract: Ventricular remodelling is the main trigger of the development of heart failure. Therefore, the reduction of structural remodelling is known to prevent the development of heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of OMACOR?, a well known mixture of EPA and DHA in an experimental model of heart failure induced by occlusion of left descending coronary artery and the reperfusion within 2 months. After a long term treatment of 2 months; OMACOR? (100 mg/kg) statistically significantly reduced the expansion of infarcted zone (35% ± 4%, P < 0.05, n = 9, versus 45% ± 3% in the vehicle group). The phosphorylation of Cx43 as biomarker of the cardiac remodelling was visualised by immunofluorescence in rat’s heart at the end of the study. In the vehicle-infarcted group, a significant de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was observed (8.2 ± 1.0 u.a, n = 8 compared to 11.8 ± 1.3 u.a in the sham group, n = 9) confirming a remodelling process in the infarcted group. In the group treated with OMACOR?,the de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was no longer observed compared to the sham group (16.4 ± 2.9 u.a, n = 9, NS). The present results demonstrate that a long term treatment with OMA-COR? reduced the infarcted size in experimental models of heart failure and that these anti-remodelling effects are due at least in part by resynchronizing the gap junction activity.


Improving Municipal Solid Waste Land Filling Disposal Process: Experiments with a Laboratory Scale Rotary Kiln  [PDF]
Jean Fidèle Nzihou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48087
Abstract:

Developing countries often face the challenge of managing continuously growing quantity of municipal waste. Waste is often disposed of by stockpiling and land filling because these have been found the cheapest waste disposal methods in the world. Unfortunately, these waste disposal methods are often source of visual pollution, water contamination and greenhouse effect gas emissions. Waste disposal by incineration has been found effective and now is one of the mostly used waste disposal method in several developed countries. Nevertheless, setting up appropriate waste incinerator requires a good of the combustion process. Unfortunately, direct studies on industrial facilities are not easily feasible because of technical issues and financial limitations. Studies and throughout testing frequently need to be carried out at laboratory scale. Work herein reported first overviewed operation conditions of the landfill facility in the town of Ouagadougou. In the second time for incineration simulation, batch experiments are carried out with a rotary kiln furnace to study the effects of the residence time on emissions of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2 in the atmosphere. For each rotation speed, emissions of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2 from the incineration of a household combustible fraction model waste consisting of wood (53%), cardboard (25%) and plastics (22%) have been recorded. The lifespan of the land filling facility with incineration has been estimated. Our work show that it may be improved up to roughly three times that of simple land filling. Visual pollution maybe drastically reduced and atmospheric pollution reduced

Analysis of Malware Families on Android Mobiles: Detection Characteristics Recognizable by Ordinary Phone Users and How to Fix It  [PDF]
Hieu Le Thanh
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2013.44024
Abstract:

The sale of products using the android Operation System (OS) phone is increasing in rate: the fact is that its price is cheaper but its configured hardware is higher, users easily buy it and the approach to this product increases the risk of the spread of mobile malware. The understanding of majority of the users of this mobile malware is still limited. While they are growing at a faster speed in the number and level of sophistication, especially their variations have created confusion for users; therefore worrying about the safety of its users is required. In this paper, the author discussed the identification and analysis of malware families on Android Mobiles. The author selected the recognizable characteristics from ordinary users with their families collected from 58 malware families and 1485 malware samples and proposed solutions as recommendations to users before installing it with the ultimate desire to mitigate the damage in the community that is on the android phone, especially the ordinary users with limited understanding about potential hazards. It would be helpful for the ordinary users to identify the mobile malware in order to mitigate the information security risk.

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