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OALib Journal期刊

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Submergence Tolerance in Irrigated and Rainfed Lowland Rice Varieties: Agro-Morphological Basis for Rice Genetic Improvement in Southern Benin  [PDF]
Magloire Oteyami, Espérance Codjia, Clement Agbangla, Leonard Ahoton, Carline Santos, David Montcho, Antoine Missihoun
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104304
Abstract:
Objective: The study was carried out, on the rice perimeter of Southern Benin, to evaluate the response of irrigated and lowland rice varieties to the complete and partial submergence using agro-morphological traits. Method: Thus, 15 rice varieties were submerged in the field during 60 days according to split plot experimental design with two factors and three replications. Agro-morphological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, the distance of internodes and the number of internodes were measured respectively at 13 days and 45 days. After harvest, some traits such as length, width and thickness of grains, panicle length, number of primary and secondary branches, the average number of empty grains and full grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight were recorded. Results: Very highly significant (P ≤ 0.0001) differences were identified between agro morphological parameters according to the type of submergence while the factor type of immersion has significant influence on the number of internodes at 45 days after transplanting (P ≤ 0.01). The submergence was not significant effect on tillering and length of internodes. Conclusion: The plant height, the weight of thousand grains and the average number of empty grains per panicle constitute key aspects and have been essential for evaluating tolerance to submergence in Benin.
Nutrient Flows in Perennial Crop-Based Farming Systems in the Humid Forests of Cameroon  [PDF]
Eugene Ejolle Ehabe, Nomo Lucien Bidzanga, Charles-Magloire Mba, Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng, Inacio de Barros, Frank Enjalric
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2010.11006
Abstract: A study was conducted in some perennial crop-based farms in the humid forests of South West Cameroon, to better understand their soil fertility patterns and management and identify factors that contribute most to nutrient depletion trends in such multi-storey farmholdings. The main perennial crops were the para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and oil palm (Eleais guineensis) whose ages ranged from immature to very old (senescence). Data were collected over a two-year period (2007 and 2008) and modelled using the farm NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) tool. Results showed that the farming systems played key roles in the overall exploitation strategies. Plantain and cassava (annual crops) and cocoa (perennial) were the most associated crops, accounting for more than half of intercropped frequencies. Whereas nutrient flows within and between farm units were confirmed, the net loss in soil N, P and K nutrient balances differed with the main perennial crop - being highest for the oil palm and lowest for the rubber tree. The average nutrient balance of each farm was markedly negative for N but positive for P and K. Partial nutrient balance (ignoring biophysical flows like N-fixation, leaching and erosion) was positive for the three nutrients indicating therefore that the biophysical flows accounted more for N depletion. Nitrogen loss was mainly due to, leaching (~70%), volatilization (~20%), and exported crops and their residues.
Macro-nutrients in edible parts of food crops in the region of Moanda, Gabon  [PDF]
Jean Aubin Ondo, Richard Menye Biyogo, Magloire Ollui-Mboulou, Fran?ois Eba, Joseph Omva-Zue
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35084
Abstract: The assessment of nutritive foodstuffs quality is an important step in the estimation of dietary intake of metals. This study aimed to assess accumulation and the daily intake of macro-elements magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium in edible parts of plants grown in Moanda area. The ranges of concentrations were 246 - 5645 mg/kg, 1167 - 35105 mg/kg, 158 - 12563 mg/kg and 88 - 795 mg/kg for Mg, Ca, K and Na, respectively. Mg and K levels were significantly higher in fruits than in tubers. The trend of accumulation in the edible parts of plants was generally: Ca > K > Mg > Na. The daily intakes of Mg and Ca were the highest and indicated food crops in Moanda had a good nutritive quality.
Clinical Stage Evaluation at Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer at Urology-Andrology Clinic Cnhu-Hkm Cotonou  [PDF]
Hounnasso Prince Pascal, Avakoudjo Josué Dejinnin Georges, Soumanou Fouad Kolawalé Yde, Koussouhon Mano?l Dossavi, Yevi Dodji Magloire, Vodonou Alexandre
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2015.53004
Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the clinical stage at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was retrospective and?descriptive from January 2008 to June 2013. Patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer wereinvolved and confirmed by clinical examination anatomopathological screening. They also realized a total serum PSA, a bladder-prostatic and abdominal ultrasound. Results: Average age was seventy years, ranging from fifty years to seventy years. The general status of our patients was satisfactory in 78% of cases. Main symptoms were dysuria and frequencyin 96% and 86%, respectively. Family past history of prostate cancer were found in 24% of cases. Twenty-three patients (43%) had a total serum PSA ≥ 100 ng/ml. Adenocarcinoma was the main histological type. Grades 1 and 4 were the most frequent. Thirty-three patients (66%) had a Gleasonscore betwen [2]-[6]. Forty-four patients (88%) had locally advanced and metastatic desease. The D’Amico score was identified in six patients but 3 and 2 patients were low risk and intermediate riskrespectively. Finally, 1 patient was high risk. Conclusion: Prostate cancer remains elderly man cancer. It was discovered in locally advanced and metastatic desease in this series. This diagnosis was late in the majority of cases.
Principales causas de mortalidad registradas en Haití durante el a?o 2000: El impacto del SIDA
Moya,José; Sanabria,José; Magloire,Roc; Hedvivert,Charleine;
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiolog?-a , 2007,
Abstract: this article described the leading causes of death by age groups and sex using death certificates registered in haiti in 2000. a team from the ministry of public health, the cuban medical cooperation and the pan american health organization collected, coded and entered the death certificates registered in 2000 in a data base. a total of 9 232 certificates were registered. aids was the leading cause of mortality with 8,7 % of the total of certificates with well defined diagnoses; this percentage increased to 22,7 % in the 25 to 44 y age group. diarrhea-gastroenteritis was the second largest cause of death but would also include aids cases since 57 % of the total number of cases occurred in people over 15 years of age. eclampsia is the leading cause of maternal death. the average age of women at death from tuberculosis was 12 years younger than men. aids mortality affects both men and women. despite the very high under-reporting and the limitations to make assumptions at the national level, the article seeks to provide health information that can be used for health programs in the most needed country of latin america.
Principales causas de mortalidad registradas en Haití durante el a o 2000: El impacto del SIDA Leading causes of mortality in Haití in 2000: AIDS impact
José Moya,José Sanabria,Roc Magloire,Charleine Hedvivert
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2007,
Abstract: Se describieron las primeras causas de muerte por grupos de edad y sexo según los certificados de defunción registrados en Haití durante el a o 2000. Con este propósito, un equipo de trabajo integrado por funcionarios del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Haití, la Cooperación Médica Cubana y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud visitaron los departamentos sanitarios del país para colectar, codificar e ingresar los certificados de defunción a una base de datos. Se registraron en total 9 232 certificados. El SIDA fue la primera causa de mortalidad con 8,7 % del total de certificados con diagnósticos bien definidos; la cifra se elevó a 22,7 % en el grupo de edad de 25 a 44 a os. La diarrea-gastroenteritis fue la segunda causa de muerte pero ocultaría casos de SIDA, ya que 57 % del total ocurrió en personas mayores de 15 a os. La eclampsia resultó ser la principal causa de muerte materna. El promedio de edad de la muerte por tuberculosis fue 12 a os menor en las mujeres con respecto a los hombres. Las muertes por SIDA afectan tanto a hombres como a mujeres. A pesar del subregistro muy alto y las limitaciones para inferir a nivel nacional, el artículo busca difundir la información sanitaria que sirva de insumo para los programas de salud del país con más necesidades de la región latinoamericana. This article described the leading causes of death by age groups and sex using death certificates registered in Haiti in 2000. A team from the Ministry of Public Health, the Cuban Medical Cooperation and the Pan American Health Organization collected, coded and entered the death certificates registered in 2000 in a data base. A total of 9 232 certificates were registered. AIDS was the leading cause of mortality with 8,7 % of the total of certificates with well defined diagnoses; this percentage increased to 22,7 % in the 25 to 44 y age group. Diarrhea-gastroenteritis was the second largest cause of death but would also include AIDS cases since 57 % of the total number of cases occurred in people over 15 years of age. Eclampsia is the leading cause of maternal death. The average age of women at death from tuberculosis was 12 years younger than men. AIDS mortality affects both men and women. Despite the very high under-reporting and the limitations to make assumptions at the national level, the article seeks to provide health information that can be used for health programs in the most needed country of Latin America.
Portage of Bacteria Responsible of Foodborne Illness in Scholarly Canteens (Republic of Benin)  [PDF]
Honoré Sourou Bankolé, Tossou Jacques Dougnon, Patrick Aléodjrodo Edorh, Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon, Magloire Legonou, Jean Robert Klotoé, Frédéric Loko
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23041
Abstract: This study has determined the portage of bacteria responsible for foodborne illness in the school canteen staff. 336 samples taken on the nose, mouth and hands were collected. Microbiological analyses were realized and several pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the vendors: Staphylococcus aureus (26/122), sulphite-reducing clostridia (14/122) and Escherichia coli (10/122). The food vendors in the school canteen may be the vectors of germs that cause food poisoning among young students.
Factors Associated with Aseptic Osteonecrosis in Hospital Settings in Yaounde, Cameroon  [PDF]
Madeleine Singwé-Ngandeu, Amina Al-Maye Bit Younouss, Bernard Chetcha Chemeni, Ibrahima Farikou, Magloire Biwole Sida, Paul Olivier Koki Ndombo
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2015.51003
Abstract: Introduction: Osteonecrosis is the cellular death of the various components of bone. It mostly affects the femoral head, and its real incidence is unknown. Many causative factors may be involved in its genesis. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it affects mainly young patients and the S and C hemoglobinopathies are the most affected backgrounds. Objective: To determine factors associated with aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head in hospital settings in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional multicentric study on 29,474 files of black Cameroonian patients seen during consultation or admission, within a five-year period, carried at the Central Hospital, the National Center for Rehabilitation of Handicaped Persons and at the FROT Clinic in Yaounde, Cameroon. Files of patients with aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (1 file = 1 patient) were enrolled. The diagnosis was retained solely based on clinical and radiologic criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging, tomodencitometry and/or bone scintigraphy were also considered when available. Classification of lesions obeyed Ficat-Arlet criteria. Patients’ files with little information and hip diseases other than aseptic osteonecrosis were excluded. Results: Fifty-one cases (0.17%) of aseptic osteonecrosis were recruited; among them, there are 28 males (55%) and 23 females (45%). Their mean age was 38.9 ± 16.4 years (extremes: 7 and 78 years). Those aged 21 to 30 years represented 25.5% of cases. Pain and loss of function were present in all patients. The lesion occurred in the right hip in 22 cases (41.1%), and left hip in 13 cases (25.5%); 16 patients (31.4%) had both hip affected. X-ray was performed for all patients. Radiologic lesions were at Stage IV in 2 cases (3.9%), III for 44 cases (86.3%), and II in 5 cases (9.8%). Factors associated with aseptic osteonecrosis were observed in 29 patients and their frequencies were as follows: sickle cell disease: n = 12 (25.3%); trauma: n = 10 (19.6%); alcoholism: n = 3 (5.9%); athletic practice: n = 3 (5.9%); and 2 patients (3.9%) were on treatment with steroid. HIV infection occurred in 2 cases (1.9%); dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and systemic lupus erythematosus were diagnosed in 1 case (1.9%) each. Conclusion: The relative incidence of aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head in hospital settings in Yaounde is 0.17% and mostly young adults are affected. Lesions are discovered at an advanced radiographic stage and sickle cell disease is the first associated factor.
Molecular Analysis of Clerodendrum formicarum Effects in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in Rat  [PDF]
Ghislain Loubano-Voumbi, Mor Diaw, Valentin Ouedraogo, Abdou Khadir Sow, A?ssatou Seck, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Abdoulaye Ba, Abdoulaye Samb
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.54023
Abstract: The pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathic pain is due to primarily metabolic and vascular factors. There is an increase in sorbitol and fructose, glycated end products, reactive oxygen species and activation of protein kinase C in the diabetic state. All these factors lead to direct damage to the nerves. Taking effective clinical management of neuropathic pain is based on a pharmacological treatment that has shown their limits and many side effects. The hypothesis of central sensitization inhibited by Clerodendrum formicarum, an African pharmacopoeia plant used to treat headaches, arthritis, epilepsy and chronic pain could act on astrocytes and microglial cells. The objective of this work is to study the effect of Clerodendrum formicarum (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight) on astrocytes and microglial cells in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain induced by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). We noted a suppression of mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia respectively by the Von Frey filaments test and the pressure test on the paw by the Clerodendrum formicarumextracts (ECF) at different doses from 2 h at the first injection of the ECF. After 5 days of treatment, we expressed by Western Blot bands of different proteins and by quantitative RT-PCR, we determined inhibition of the expression of GFAP, CD11b and isoforms 1 and 2 of cyclooxygenase. These results suggest that ECF inhibits the activation of astrocytes, microglial cells and cyclooxygenase signaling pathway.
Prevalence of HBs Antigen, and HCV and HIV Antibodies in a Young Male Population in Cameroon  [PDF]
Dominique Noah Noah, Firmin Ankouane Andoulo, Brice Valery Moussima Essoh, Georges Nko’O Ayissi, Servais Albert Fiacre Eloumou Bagnaka, Magloire Biwole Sida
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.512028
Abstract: Introduction: According to WHO estimates, 57% of cases of liver cirrhosis and 78% of primary liver carcinoma are caused by a hepatitis B or C virus. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these diseases and HIV among a young male population, according to region. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 17 February to 31 March 2014 in the ten administrative regions of Cameroon. The study included male subjects of Cameroonian nationality aged at least 18 and at most 23, and living in the regions concerned. It excluded subjects that did not match the age, gender, and nationality criteria. For each subject, 10 ml of blood was collected in a dry tube. After centrifugation at 3000 RPM for 5 minutes, the serum was collected for the detection of viral infections. For subjects that tested positive, a confirmatory test was conducted. Results: In total, 4367 subjects were selected, with an average age of 20.46 (+/- 1.17) years. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus stood at 13.01% (with 95% CI: 12.03% - 14.05%). That of viral hepatitis C was 0.30% (95% CI: 0.17% - 0.52%). Co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses was 0.05% (95% CI: 0.01% - 0.18%). The prevalence of HIV infection was 1.01% (95% CI: 0.74% - 1.36%). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of HBsAg in the population of young males is high. It tallies with the early vertical and horizontal modes of transmission that prevail in our environment.
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