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Molecular Beam Depletion: A New Approach  [PDF]
Manuel Dorado
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.512116
Abstract:

During the last years some interesting experimental results have been reported for experiments in N2O, NO, NO dimer, H2, Toluene and BaFCH3 cluster. The main result consists in the observation of molecular beam depletion when the molecules of a pulsed beam interact with a static electric or magnetic field and an oscillating field (RF). In these cases, and as a main difference, instead of using four fields as in the original technique developed by I.I. Rabi and others, only two fields, those which configure the resonant unit, are used. That is, without using the nonhomogeneous magnetic fields. The depletion explanation for I.I. Rabi and others is based in the interaction between the molecular electric or magnetic dipole moment and the non-homogeneous fields. But, obviously, the change in the molecules trajectories observed on these new experiments has to be explained without considering the force provided by the field gradient because it happens without using non-homogeneous fields. In this paper a theoretical way for the explanation of these new experimental results is presented. One important point emerges as a result of this development, namely, the existence of an, until now unknown, spin-dependent force which would be responsible of the aforementioned deviation of the molecules.

On Simple Completely Reducible Binary-Lie Superalgebras over sl2(F)  [PDF]
Manuel Arenas
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.55030
Abstract:

In this article, we prove that if B is a simple binary-Lie superalgebra whose even part is isomorphic to sl2(F) ?and whose odd part is a completely reducible binary-Lie-module over the even part, then B is a Lie superalgebra. We introduce also a binary-Lie module over which is sl2(F) not completely reducible.

Origin and Evolution of Life Constraints on the Solar Model  [PDF]
K Michaelian, O Manuel
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.226068
Abstract: Life arose as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic process to dissipate the photon potential generated by the hot Sun and cold outer space. Evidence from the geochemical record of the evolutionary history of life on Earth suggests that life originated in a hot aqueous environment dissipating UV light and evolved later to dissipate visible light. This evidence places constraints on models of solar origin and evolution. The standard solar model seems less compatible with the data than does the pulsar centered solar model.
Increasing the Efficiency of Transboundary Water Management: A Regionalization Approach  [PDF]
Dirk Huchtemann, Manuel Frondel
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.26057
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a methodological approach to increase the efficiency of watershed management approaches that focuses on the reduction of diffuse water pollution. The basic idea is that the efficiency may be improved by identifying and constituting homogenous groups of contiguous administrative units of a watershed, which jointly implement water pollution reduction measures. Homogeneity means similarity of group members with respect to a set of local and environmental characteristics, such as the degree of pollution and abatement costs. We empirically apply our methodology to the watershed of the German river Ems and identify homogenous groups of contiguous administrative units using cluster analysis methods implemented in a Geographical Information System.
Embedding PV and WF Models into Steady State Studies by an Optimization Strategy  [PDF]
Juan Manuel Ramirez
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2011.23027
Abstract: Modeling of photovoltaic (PV) and wind farms (WF) stations to take into account these renewable energies into the power flow formulation are summarized. A strategy based on multi objective optimization in order to allocate PV and WF power into electrical power system is proposed. It is assumed that there are a reduced number of choices to allocate the stations. The algorithm is applied to the 39-bus test power system. The results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of optimal placement of renewable units.
Stress prevention by modulation of autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability): A preliminary study using transcranial direct current stimulation  [PDF]
Eduardo Manuel Gon?alves
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.22016
Abstract: Introduction: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, technique for brain stimulation. Anodal stimulation causes neuronal depolarisation and long-term potentiation, while cathodal stimulation causes hyperpolarisation and long-term depression. Stressors are associated with an increase in sympathetic cardiac control, a decrease in parasympathetic control, or both. Associated with these reactions is a frequently reported increase in Low Frequency (LF) Heart Rate Variability (HRV), a decrease in High Frequency (HF) power, and/or an increase in the LF/HF ratio. Objectives and aims: The present work aims to explore the tDCS potential in the modulation of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), through indirect stimulation of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). Methods: Two subjects, a 39 year old female and a 49 year old male, gave informed consent. Saline soaked synthetic sponges involving two, thick, metalic (stainless steel) rectangles, with an area of 25 cm2 each have been used as electrodes, connected to Iomed Phoresor II Auto device. It has been delivered a 2 mA current, for 20 minutes, over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) (Anode). Spectrum analysis (cStress software) of HRV has been performed before and after tDCS administration. Results: The female/male subject results of LF power, HF power and LF/HF ratio, before tDCS administration, were, respectively: 50.1 nu/60 nu, 46.1 nu/21.7 nu and 1.087/2.771; and, after tDCS administration, respectively: 33.5 nu/52.7 nu, 47.6 nu/ 22.8 nu and 0.704/2.312. Conclusions: tDCS over the left DLPFC (left ACC) increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity, suggesting the importance of tDCS in the management of stress-related disorders.
An Investigation of the Dimensional Changes of Polymer Mixture Tablets Containing a Soluble Drug, Using an Image Analysis Method. Influence of These Characteristics on Drug Release and Its Mechanism  [PDF]
Manuel Efentakis, Despina Tavoulari
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.32026
Abstract: The properties and characteristics of the polymer used for the preparation of matrix drug delivery systems considerably influence their performance and the extent of drug release and its mechanism. The objective of this research was to examine the dimensional changes, and gel evolution of polymer matrices consisting of three different polymers Polyox, sodium alginate (hydrophilic) and Ethocel (hydrophobic), using an image analysis method. Furthermore to explore how these changes influence the release rate of a soluble drug namely, venlafaxine. All tablets displayed marked dimensional expansion and gel growth particularly those consisting of two hydrophilic polymers Polyox/sodium alginate (POL/SA/V) compared to those consisting of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic Polyox/Ethocel (POL/ET/V). Similarly the thickness of the gel layer in POL/SA/V matrices increased considerably with time up to 8 hours. In general our findings show that the POL/SA/V matrices, due to their thicker gel layer produced a more effective barrier which results in a more pronounced sustained release delivery. This accounts for the slower and smaller overall drug release observed with the POL/SA/V matrices compared to those containing POL/ET/V and indicates that the formation of a thick and durable gel barrier is a characteristic necessary for the preparation of sustained drug release systems. Moreover the solubility of venlafaxine in combination with the polymer’s properties appears to play an important role on the extent of drug release and the release mechanism. Overall the polymer mixtures examined comprise a useful and promising combination of materials for the development and manufacture of sustained release preparations based on these polymers.
Design of Sharp 2D Multiplier-Less Circularly Symmetric FIR Filter Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Frequency Transformation  [PDF]
Manju Manuel, Elizabeth Elias
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33044
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel and efficient method for the design of a sharp, two dimensional (2D) wideband, circularly symmetric, FIR filter. First of all, a sharp one dimensional (1D) infinite precision FIR filter is designed using the Frequency Response Masking (FRM) technique. This filter is converted into a multiplier-less filter by representing it in the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) space. The design of the FRM filter in the CSD space calls for the use of a discrete optimization technique. To this end, a new optimization approach is proposed using a modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). HSA is modified in such a way that, in every exploitation and exploration phase, the candidate solutions turns out to be integers. The 1D FRM multiplier-less filter, is in turn transformed to the 2D equivalent using the recently proposed multiplier-less transformations namely, T1 and T2. These transformations are successful in generating circular contours even for wideband filters. Since multipliers are the most power consuming elements in a 2D filter, the multiplier-less realization calls for reduced power consumption as well as computation time. Significant reduction in the computational complexity and computation time are the highlights of our proposed design technique. Besides, the proposed discrete optimization using modified HSA can be used to solve optimization problems in other engineering disciplines, where the search space consists of integers.
Facing a Shift in Paradigm at the Bedside?  [PDF]
Borja Vargas, Manuel Varela
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.41008
Abstract:

Our entire medical framework is based on the concept of disease, understood as a qualitative departure from normality (health) with a structural substrate (lesion), and usually an identifiable cause (aetiology). This paradigm is loaded with problems, some of which are discussed in the text. Nevertheless, we study, diagnose and treat diseases, and while often painfully conscious of the dysfunctionalities of this scheme, we can hardly imagine how we could practice medicine otherwise. However, most of the recent developments in basic sciences, and most notably in Immunology, Genetics and -omics, are inconsistent with this “health/disease” paradigm. The emerging scenario is that of complex networks, more in the spirit of Systems Biology. In these settings the qualitative difference between health and disease loses its meaning, and the whole discourse becomes progressively irreducible to our conventional clinical categories. As clinical research stagnates while basic sciences thrive, this gap is widening, and a change in the prevailing paradigm seems unavoidable. However, all our clinical judgments (including Bayesian reasoning and Evidence Based Medicine) are rooted in the disease/health dichotomy, and one can hardly conceive how they could work without it. The shift in paradigm will not be easy, and certain turmoil is to be expected.

Equilibrium Dynamics in the Neoclassical Growth Model with Habit Formation and Elastic Labor Supply  [PDF]
Manuel A. Gómez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25087
Abstract: This note analyzes the equilibrium dynamics in the neoclassical growth model with habit-forming preferences and elastic labor supply. Habits enter into utility in a multiplicative way. The specification of the habit formation process comprises the particular cases of internal and external habits. Existence, uniqueness and saddle-path stability of the steady state are proved analytically.
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