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Soil and Leaf Micronutrient Composition in Contrasting Habitats in Podzolized Sands of the Amazon Region  [PDF]
María Antonieta Sobrado
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.410235
Abstract:

Plant macronutrient distribution in podzolized sands of the Amazon caatinga has received attention in several studies; however, the distribution of micronutrients has not been assessed. Soil micronutrient availability has been hypothesized to reflect contrasting habitat characteristics as well as fundamental differences in substrate, and leaf micronutrient composition may reflect the macronutrient content needed to maintain balance for leaf cell functions. In this study, soil and leaf samples were obtained in a toposequence (valley, slope, and mound). Available soil micro- and macronutrients as well as total leaf content were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and mass spectroscopy. Soil Zn (<1.41 mg·kg-1) and B (<0.31 mg·kg-1) as well as Cu (<1.33 mg·kg-1) levels were very low. Soil Mn was low in the valleys and slopes (0.62-0.87 mg·kg-1), but higher in the mound (6.59 mg·kg-1). Soil Fe (11.48-21.13 mg·kg-1) was well above the critical level in all of

Urban Simulation Models: Contributions as Analysis-Methodology in a Project of Urban Renewal*  [PDF]
María Cecilia Marengo
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23028
Abstract: The recent urban transformations produced in cities indicate the need to propose new theoretical and methodological approaches in physical planning. Based on the idea of complexity, it is required to integrate, in the analysis, multiplicity of interrelated factors involved in urban development, moreover, to develop planning tools that can incorporate variables not initially considered (for example when the norms were sanctioned) and instruments that would provide assessment alternatives to planning decisions in real time. The simulation models are suggested as tools to detect the elements, relationships and the dynamics in a simplified form that allow experiencing on the results. That is to say, a theoretical position on to a computer model is translated to investigate (in an experimental way) possible solutions derived from manipulating the variables, before the phenomenon is materialized. In the case of urban planning, this condition is of particular relevance, given the importance to anticipate unwanted effects in the intervention context that may arise when urban projects are built. The paper evaluates the application of a simulation methodology, based on the dynamics of systems and the application of software that can anticipate the effects of certain decisions in an urban renewal project in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. It applies the General Systems Theory that is a contribution to the notion of complex thought and is trans-disciplinary. Based on the idea of complex and multidimensional city, the effects of a real estate development are analyzed and conclusions on the limits and possibilities of using this tool during the processes of urban management are provided.
Microalbuminuria in pediatric patients with hypertension  [PDF]
Nata?a Mar?un Varda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54A006
Abstract:

Microalbuminuria in adults has been found to be an early indicator of both renal and systemic vascular disease, as well as significant cardiovascular risk predictor and therapeutic marker. Its role in essential hypertension in adults has also been well established. As diseases like hypertension and obesity have their roots in childhood and are already present in children, influencing the morbidity in adulthood, the role of microalbuminuria has been extensively investigated in children as well. Most investigations have been performed in diabetic children, confirming its clinical significance. There is also enough evidence to suggest that microalbuminuria in obese children should be taken as seriously as in children with diabetes. In children with hypertension rare studies also indicate that its presence identifies hypertensive children with higher risk, although the exact role has to be confirmed in prospective and larger studies. The mechanisms of microalbuminuria onset could be the result of renal damage secondary to hypertension or underlying renal and systemic endothelial dysfunction. Evidence from small intervention studies in children with microalbuminuria also suggests that early intervention with antihypertensive drugs is likely to be beneficial, pointing out the role of microalbuminuria as a therapeutic marker in children too. In addition, we have to stress the importance of follow-up of children with microalbuminuria, confirmation of its persistence and identification of progression. However, longitudinal prospective studies in children, investigating its future cardiovascular risk, are still lacking.

De los hermanos Ayar a Inkarri
María María Burela
Anthropologica , 1983,
Abstract: No presenta resumen.
Extreme Rainfall Indices in the Hydrographic Basins of Brazil  [PDF]
María C. Valverde, José A. Marengo
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.41002
Abstract: The authors analyze climate extremes indices (CEI) of rainfall over the largest basins of the Brazilian territory: Amazon (AMA), S?o Francisco (SF), Tocantins (TO) and Paraná (PAR) rivers. The CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R95p) and short duration extreme rainfall (RX5day and RX1day). Droughts (CDDd) are identified based on two indicators: The longest dry period (CDD) and the annual cycle. The results demonstrate that CDDd, RX1day and RX5day occurred with more frequency and intensity in SF basin during El Ni?o events. CDDd was of greater magnitude in the TO basin during La Ni?a events, while an increase of RX1day occurred in El Ni?o. The strong El Ni?o events (1983 and 1997) caused more intense and frequent RX1day and R30mm over the PAR basin. Amazon droughts occurred in two out of the six El Ni?o events. Moreover, the relationship between the positive (negative) sea superficial temperatures anomalies in North (South) Tropical Atlantic and drought in AMA basin was corroborated. A gradual warming of SST was observed at the start of 2003 until it achieved a maximum in 2005 associated with the southwestern Amazon drought. The second highest anomaly of SST was in 2010 linked with drought that was more spatially extensive than the 2005 drought. The spatial distribution of annual trends showed a significant increase of CDD in south-eastern AMA, Upper SF, northern PAR and throughout the TO basins. R20mm, RX1day and RX5day tend to increase significantly in southwestern (northeast) PAR (AMA) and northwestern TO basins. Comparisons between CEI derived from daily precipitation data from Climate Prediction Center (CPCp) and of the ETA_HadCM3 model showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, in the four basins. Future scenarios show that dry periods will occur with greatest magnitude in all the basins until 2071-2099 time slice, while RX1day will be more intense in the TO and SF basins.
Nonunion of the humeral shaft successfully treated with teriparatide [rh (1-34) PTH]  [PDF]
ángel Oteo-álvaro, María T. Marín
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.21004
Abstract:

We reported a case of atrophic nonunion after humeral shaft fracture in a patient with severe psychiatric disorders that advised against hospital admission and surgery. He was treated with teriparatide (recombinant human 1-34 parathyroid hormon) [rh (1-34) PTH] in daily subcutaneous injections. After 4 months of treatment, healing of nonunion, associated to clinical improvement and functional recovery of the patient, was observed. No other intervention was required, and no side effects attributable to the drug occurred.

Images for the History of Communication: The First Engravings from the Americas  [PDF]
María del Mar Ramírez-Alvarado
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41006
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to make an in-depth study of the image as a form of representation of the reality which reflects history in a unique way, and to discuss the different factors that may have impact on the correlation between reality and its representation by an image. For that purpose, the first engravings circulated in Europe of American natives will be used as an example, to determine their characteristics, and their authors. The study demonstrates how the images are determined by the interpretations, beliefs and previous knowledge of the artists or publishers of the 92 studied images, none of whom had direct knowledge of the American reality.
La transparencia de Las empresas en internet para La confianza de Los accionistas e inversores: un análisis empírico
Alonso Almeida,María Mar;
Cuadernos de Administración , 2009,
Abstract: the globalisation of the economy and financial scandals in certain businesses have meant that information on the functioning and government of business has been critical to confidence in it, and for the proper functioning of the capital markets. information about a business not only reduces the risk to the investor, but also reduces asymmetry in information and increases the transparency of the business in the eyes of all stakeholders, particularly shareholders and investors. the use of the internet technology allows businesses to make the large volume of information available to interested third parties in any part of the world, at low cost. the most important point is that it allows the confidence which a business has lost to be restored. this work creates and makes an analysis of an index of transparency which is useful to measure the confidence which businesses are transmitting on the internet.
Fortalecimiento de la función rectora de las autoridades sanitarias en las reformas del sector de la salud
Marín,José María;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892000000700006
Abstract: strengthening the ability of health authorities to provide leadership and guidance, now and in the future, is an important issue within the context of health sector reform. it means, among other things, redefining the role of health in light of leading social and economic trends seen in the world at the beginning of the 21st century, increasing participation in health by nongovernmental entities, moving toward participatory democracy in many countries, and modifying concepts of what is considered "public" and "private." within this scenario, it is necessary to redirect the role of the health sector toward coordinating the mobilization of national resources, on a multisectoral scale, in order to improve equity and social well-being and to channel the limited available resources to the most disadvantaged groups in society. the liberalization of the production and distribution of health-related goods and services, including insurance, challenges the exercise of authority in the area of health. furthermore, the formation of regional economic blocks and the enormous weight wielded by multinational companies in the areas of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies and technologies are forcing the health sector to seek ways of harmonizing health legislation and international negotiations. according to many experts, all of these demands surpass the ability of latin american ministries of health to effectively respond, given most countries' current organizational, legal, and political conditions and technical infrastructure. the countries of the americas must make it a priority to strengthen their health officials' ability to provide leadership and guidance in order to meet present and future challenges.
El vicio de leer
María del Mar Bonet
álabe , 2010,
Abstract:
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