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Some Observations on Indian Federalism in Comparative Perspective  [PDF]
Mauro Mazza
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61004
Abstract: The article analyses the form of state of the federal Indian Union, which is rather atypical in the “landscape” of comparative constitutional law. The trend towards centralization of functions and powers, both at federal and state levels, probably constitutes some sort of quasi-federalism, or semi-federalism, or even unionist federalism. Indian pragmatic federalism, which we can mainly characterize as a variant of ethnic federalism, may well lead, in terms of the classification of the forms of state, to consider Indian federalism as unitary federalism, or as the realization of a sui generis unionist state.
The Prospects of Independence for Greenland, between Energy Resources and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (with Some Comparative Remarks on Nunavut, Canada)  [PDF]
Mauro Mazza
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.64028
Abstract: In a comparative view of the Arctic, Greenland is the only autonomous territory that has the possibility of legally reaching the status of full independence. The funding of the increasing autonomy and, ultimately, of the independence of Greenland is acquired largely from the revenues of mining operations and, more generally, from the exploitation of natural energy sources. However, one must consider the special conditions of the indigenous Inuit, torn between the desire to participate in the development of the Arctic regions, with the related socio-economic benefits, and the willingness not to abandon the traditional lifestyles that are the basis of their indigenous culture.
TikTak: A Scalable Simulator of Wireless Sensor Networks Including Hardware/Software Interaction  [PDF]
Francesco Menichelli, Mauro Olivieri
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.211098
Abstract: We present a simulation framework for wireless sensor networks developed to allow the design exploration and the complete microprocessor-instruction-level debug of network formation, data congestion, nodes interaction, all in one simulation environment. A specifically innovative feature is the co-emulation of selected nodes at clock-cycle-accurate hardware processing level, allowing code debug and exact execution latency evaluation (considering both protocol stack and application), together with other nodes at abstract protocol level, meeting a designer’s needs of simulation speed, scalability and reliability. The simulator is centered on the Zigbee protocol and can be retargeted for different node micro-architectures.
Optimum Shape of High Speed Impactor for Concrete Targets Using PSOA Heuristic  [PDF]
Francesco Ragnedda, Mauro Serra
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.24035
Abstract: The present paper deals with the optimum shape design of an absolutely rigid impactor which penetrates into a semi-infinite concrete shield. The objective function to maximize is the depth of penetration (DOP for short) of the impactor; in the case of impactors with axisymmetric shapes DOP is calculated using formulas obtained by Ben-Dor et al. [1-3] with the method of local variations [4] and based on the mechanical model proposed by Forrestal and Tzou [5]. In the present paper we show that using a different class of admissible functions, more general than the axisymmetric one, better results can be obtained. To solve the formulated optimization problem we used a custom version of the particle swarm optimization method (briefly denoted by PSOA), a very recent numerical optimization algorithm of guided random global search. Numerical results show the optimal shape for various types of shields and corresponding DOP; some Ben-Dor et al. [1-3] results are compared to solutions obtained.
The Pursuit of Quality: Assessing Democracies… to Save Democracy?  [PDF]
Mauro Tebaldi, Marco Calaresu
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.61001
Abstract: For over a decade, there has been the widespread awareness that western democracies need to be reformed if they want to successfully cope with the crisis that they are experiencing; also, ultimately, if they want to be able to increase their own level of quality. The aim of this article is to illustrate why and how the quality of a democracy can (and indeed, must) be assessed with the purpose of improving it. Passing through a reflection on the state of the art of a major sector of studies in the international scientific scenario, and by presenting an original typological proposal to classify these same studies, we maintain that the crisis of democracy may be overcome, first of all, by improving the assessment skills of scholars and, secondly, by transforming the knowledge on democratic quality into useful knowledge for citizens.
Decision Making Styles and Adaptive Algorithms for Human Action  [PDF]
Mauro Maldonato, Silvia Dell’ Orco
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28124
Abstract: Without human beings’ ability to choose – and in such a way give order to a universe which, in the beginning, must have presented itself as a chaotic mass of data without clear structures and regularity – evolution would have been unthinkable, even more inconceivable if one considers the fact that the adaptation to that universe must have taken place on the basis of incomplete, fragmentary information and above all starting from limited cognitive capacities and restricted time limits. In order to respond to the challenges of the environment, an individual had to first of all be quick: quick in the reaction to the attack of a predator and in the gaining of an escape route, in deciding how to pursue pray, in obtaining gains from territory that others were using at that same moment, in the selection of a partner and of a place in which to take refuge and so forth. Therefore, if it is true that evolutionary pressure urged the human mind to accumulate information by means of a significant quota of rational decisions, the vast majority of human choices have been favoured by ecological decision making strategies.
Strategic Innovation Planning and Partnerships: Aligning Market, Products/Services/Processes and Technologies  [PDF]
Mauro Caetano, Daniel C. Amaral
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.41001
Abstract:

There are different tools to support the innovation planning, however, the paradigm of open innovation shows that there is a need to adopt different partners in the development of technology, product, service or process, and many of the proposals in the literature ignore this theme on the innovation process. This study proposes a generic model to strategic innovation planning, especially for technology push approach. The model was developed from an action research and literature review, which includes these elements. It contains three different stages ranging from the identification of markets and possible partners to carry out a strategic plan for innovation. The application identifies the technology core of the organization and possible technology, products, services or processes to be developed. Results on the practical application of the model over different innovation processes can be objects of future research.

The Software for the Robotization of the TROBAR Telescope
Mauro Stefanon
Advances in Astronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/785959
Abstract: The Telescopi ROBotic de ARas (TROBAR) is a new robotic facility built at Aras de Los Olmos (Valencia, Spain). This is a 60?cm telescope equipped with a optical camera, corresponding to ? FoV, and it will be primarily used for a systematic search of Ha emitting stars in the Galactic Plane to a depth of 14?mag. Both data acquisition and reduction will be performed automatically. The robotization of data acquisition is now entering its final coding phase while the development of the data reduction pipeline has just started. 1. Introduction Galactic H emitting objects are tracers of pre- and postmain-sequence stars as well as of nebulae, cataclysmic variables, Be stars, and other more exotic objects like Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and Wolf-Rayet stars. IPHAS [1–4], the most complete survey of the galactic plane carried out so far, is complete in the magnitude range to for . The classical surveys, mostly based on objective-prism photographic observations, are complete up to magnitude 9 (see, e.g., [5, 6]). In this context, the main aim of our project is to carry out a photometric survey covering the existing gap down to ?14 with observations and data reduction automatically performed. 2. Telescope and Location TROBAR is located at the Observatori Astronomic de Aras (OAA), approximately 100?Km north-west of Valencia, at an altitude of 1330?m, in a region of low light pollution. The telescope, realized by Teleskoptechnik Halfmann, has a main mirror of 60?cm in diameter, with a classical Ritchey-Chrétien optical scheme; a Nasmyth focus is present, to which an optical camera is attached. The telescope can slew as fast as 10?deg/sec allowing to point any region of the sky in less than a minute. A filterwheel hosts standard Sloan Str?mgren plus two H filters (one narrow and one medium-band). Table 1 lists the main features of the telescope. Table 1: TROBAR main features. Low level control of telescope pointing capabilities is done by the Pilar software provided by Systems Gmb company, which supplies a socket interface to the TCS commands. The optical detector is a Fairchild Peregrine 486 back-illuminated CCD, providing an array of pixels of 15? m 15? m read by four amplifiers; the readout noise is . The telescope can be both remotely controlled and robotically operated and a set of commands also allows to perform almost all the operations via scripting procedure. Here we will outline its robotic capabilities. 3. System Description The operations which can be performed by the telescope comprise the acquisition of calibration frames (bias, darks, sky flat
A new era for Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
Mauro Castelli
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-27-1
Abstract: First launched in 1982, JECCR joined BioMed Central in order to provide rapid dissemination of scientific results to the widest possible global audience. Furthermore, authors submitting to JECCR can expect a fast turnaround time, benefitting from an efficient review process and publication immediately upon acceptance. JECCR's content will be widely indexed (for instance by PubMed, Medline, Thomson/ISI, Embase, and CAS) and covered by a range of freely accessible full-text archives [3].JECCR publishes scientific studies on the biological, epidemiological, immunological, pathological, radiobiological, and clinical aspects of oncology. Topics considered range from molecular genetics via infectious agents to surgery and therapeutic approaches and outcomes. The broad oncological focus, combined with the Editors' experience in evaluating and conducting systematic reviews and developing clinical practice guidelines, makes JECCR an attractive forum for publishing reviews and guidelines. This focus, well documented in an Editorial by H. J. Schünemann [4], goes very well together with the approach now being widely applied by many international and national organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), Cochrane Collaboration, American College of Physicians (ACP), and the National Institutes for Health and Clinical Excellence in the U.K. (NICE).In response to increasing requests JECCR has decided to devote particular attention to more specific areas of cancer investigation. To this end, specific sections and subsections under the supervision of expert Editors have been created: the new topics include Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST), Lung and Pleural Tumors, and Preclinical Investigations in spontaneous animal models.We believe that the new editorial changes combined with the advantages of BioMed Central's open access publishing platform will greatly improve JECCR's dissemination and visibility. The journal's online archive back to 1999 remains available f
HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?
Mauro Giacca
Retrovirology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-2-7
Abstract: Although more than 20 years have passed since the identification of HIV as the cause of AIDS, several essential questions about its pathogenicity remain as yet unanswered. In particular, a central, still unresolved issue is the mechanism underlying the progressive development of immunodeficiency. It is now well established that HIV infection determines a rapid turnover of infected CD4 cells [1,2]; consistent with this finding, multiple molecular pathways triggered by different HIV proteins are known to lead to cell apoptosis [3,4]. However, the capacity of the immune system to regenerate its cells by far exceeds the number of dying HIV infected cells. Thus, the extension of the apoptotic message to neighboring, bystander cells has long been recognized as a potential mechanism sustaining the immunodeficiency that accompanies HIV disease progression [5].In this context, the finding that the virus-encoded Tat protein is released by the infected cells and can be taken up by neighboring, uninfected cells via an endocytic mechanism [6,7] has long suggested the possibility that some of the bystander apoptotic effects exerted by HIV might be mediated by this protein. Over ten years ago different investigators did indeed show that extracellular Tat can trigger apoptosis in T-cell lines and primary T-cells [8,9]. The classical apoptotic pathway, involving the cell's mitochondria, is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This family contains both anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL) and pro-apotpotic (Bax, Bid, Bim) members that exert their function primarily at the mitochondrion by either preventing or inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Upon receiving a death signal, the pro-apoptotic proteins translocate from the cytoplasm to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where they interact with their pro-apoptotic partners. This occurrence is followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, release of pro-apoptotic proteins out of the mitochondrion (among which, a prominent role can be ascribed
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