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OALib Journal期刊

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Do You Realize Two Basic Questions in Genetics?  [PDF]
Muying Zhou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104396
Abstract:
There are two basic questions in genetics. The “first question” inquires about the germplasm that is capable of producing an individual. It asks “Who produces the individual?” Preformation, Darwin’s Pangenesis, and Weisman’s Germ-plasm theories are all attempts to answer the “first question”. The “second question” usually arises in sexually reproducing species. Because there are two parents (dad and mom) that form the producer (germplasm), one question arises: which pattern (dad or mom) appears in the offspring? It asks “What thing stimulates dad (or mom) to produce offspring having their own pattern?” As in his experiments, Mendel assumed that “the tall (short) variety contains something that makes the plants tall (short)”. “Blending inheritance”, which has been popular in history, is an attempt to answer the “second question”. In short, the “first question” is a matter of the germplasm; and the “second question” is a matter of the template. Mendel’s experiments are typical “second question” experiments. Therefore, the gene found by Mendel is the template that promotes the formation of the individual (traits) rather than the producer. However, the basis of genetics should be the germplasm (producer) rather than the template.
The Answer to the “First Question” in Genetics: The Hereditary Material  [PDF]
Muying Zhou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104645
Abstract:
The basis of genetics should be the hereditary material which should be able to produce the individual. DNA (Genes) is ever regarded as the producer of the individual. However, DNA being lack of producing force can not produce the individual. So, this paper’s task is to look for another element, producing force, which along with genes (DNA) forms the hereditary material. And finally the paper confirms that the egg’s transcriptase system is this producing force.
The Law of Self-Replication and the Birth of Life Science  [PDF]
Muying Zhou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104644
Abstract:
The understanding of the unique replication facts of living things helps us to discover the basic law of the life world: the law of self-replication. This law re-veals the root causes of life arising and lays the foundation stone for life sci-ence. From now on, what is a living thing, what does life mean? There has been a standard (the definition).
The Origin of Life Discovered: ΣRNA  [PDF]
Muying Zhou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104681
Abstract:
Since 1992, scientific knowledge has been enough to determine the origin of life: “life originated through RNA”. The truth is that current life world on Earth is just an RNA world, since the protein is created by RNA, then DNA as life’s database is created by RNA along with reverse transcriptase (a protein of RNA making). The two life series on the planet originated through two RNA groups (named ΣRNA ): IΣRNA and IIΣRNA . IΣRNA consists of the RNA members of the translational machinery (i.e., three kinds of rRNAs, 20 kinds of tRNAs, several ribozymes etc.) and the mRNA encoding an RNA replicase. IΣRNA is able to produce the RNA replicase and then with this replicase IΣRNA can also produce own template IΣRNA. Thus its two tools (own template IΣRNA and producing-force RNA replicase) arise. Two tools can in turn produce the template’s prototype, namely IΣRNA . So the prototype and its tools can produce each other, and the “egg-chicken” replication loop is formed. From this time, the life arises. IIΣRNA consists of the RNA mem-bers of the translational machinery and mRNA encoding reverse transcriptase and transcriptase. This group is able to produce reverse transcriptase and transcriptase. Thus, two tools (template IIΣDNA and producing-force tran-scriptase) can also arise, which can reproduce IIΣRNA (the prototype of the template). Here, the prototype and its tools can also produce each other, and the “egg-chicken” replication loop is similarly formed. Thus, life is also creat-ed. RNA viruses that do not involve DNA in their lifecycle belong to the IΣRNA life series. All life on Earth, excluding the above viruses, belong to the life series that originated from IIΣRNA .
Optical Solitons in a Trinal-channel Inverted Nonlinear Photonic Crystal
Guihua Chen,Shaoqiang Zhang,Muying Wu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1142/S0218863513500124
Abstract: Inverted nonlinear photonic crystals are the crystals featuring competition between linear and nonlinear lattices, with minima of the linear potential coinciding with maxima of the nonlinear pseudopotential, and vice versa. Traditional inverted nonlinear photonic crystals only have two channels, and can be attained experimentally by means of Rhodamine B (RhB, a dye featuring saturable absorption) doped into the SU-8 polymer. In this paper, a new type of inverted nonlinear photonic crystal is constructed by juxtaposing three kinds of channels into a period. These three channels are a purely linear channel, a saturable self-focusing nonlinear channel, and a saturable self-defocusing nonlinear channel. This optical device is assumed to be fabricated by means of SU-8 polymer material periodically doped with two types of active dyes. The nonlinear propagation of a light field inside this device (passing along the channel) can be described by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Stable multi-peak fundamental and dipole solitons are found in the first gap of the system. These solitons sufficiently exhibit some interesting digital properties, which may have potential in optical communications.
Comprehensively Surveying Structure and Function of RING Domains from Drosophila melanogaster
Muying Ying, Xiaotian Huang, Haijun Zhao, Yuehao Wu, Fusheng Wan, Chunhong Huang, Kemin Jie
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023863
Abstract: Using a complete set of RING domains from Drosophila melanogaster, all the solved RING domains and cocrystal structures of RING-containing ubiquitin-ligases (RING-E3) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) pairs, we analyzed RING domains structures from their primary to quarternary structures. The results showed that: i) putative orthologs of RING domains between Drosophila melanogaster and the human largely occur (118/139, 84.9%); ii) of the 118 orthologous pairs from Drosophila melanogaster and the human, 117 pairs (117/118, 99.2%) were found to retain entirely uniform domain architectures, only Iap2/Diap2 experienced evolutionary expansion of domain architecture; iii) 4 evolutionary structurally conserved regions (SCRs) are responsible for homologous folding of RING domains at the superfamily level; iv) besides the conserved Cys/His chelating zinc ions, 6 equivalent residues (4 hydrophobic and 2 polar residues) in the SCRs possess good-consensus and conservation- these 4 SCRs function in the structural positioning of 6 equivalent residues as determinants for RING-E3 catalysis; v) members of these RING proteins located nucleus, multiple subcellular compartments, membrane protein and mitochondrion are respectively 42 (42/139, 30.2%), 71 (71/139, 51.1%), 22 (22/139, 15.8%) and 4 (4/139, 2.9%); vi) CG15104 (Topors) and CG1134 (Mul1) in C3HC4, and CG3929 (Deltex) in C3H2C3 seem to display broader E2s binding profiles than other RING-E3s; vii) analyzing intermolecular interfaces of E2/RING-E3 complexes indicate that residues directly interacting with E2s are all from the SCRs in RING domains. Of the 6 residues, 2 hydrophobic ones contribute to constructing the conserved hydrophobic core, while the 2 hydrophobic and 2 polar residues directly participate in E2/RING-E3 interactions. Based on sequence and structural data, SCRs, conserved equivalent residues and features of intermolecular interfaces were extracted, highlighting the presence of a nucleus for RING domain fold and formation of catalytic core in which related residues and regions exhibit preferential evolutionary conservation.
Development Status, Problems and Countermeasures of Large- and Intermediate-Scale Biogas Projects in Beijing’s Mountainous Counties  [PDF]
Zhongren Zhou, Zhujun Zhou
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2013.15010
Abstract: Developing large- and intermediate-scale biogas project is an important gripper ofBeijingrural energy construction and “Green Beijing” construction. The existing projects have made obvious energy and environment benefits, but the overall effects have not been fully exerted. There is still a large gap betweenBeijing’s ecological civilization goal and the operation effect. This paper takes biogas projects ofBeijingseven mountainous counties as examples, the development status, ecological environment construction and existing problems of operating are explained respectively. Finally, some countermeasures and suggestions are proposed for promoting the sustainable development of biogas project inBeijing, such as strengthening technical innovation and setting standards, innovating development patterns and planning reasonable layout, improve the maintenance mechanism and intensify policy support.
An oversampling system for ECG acquisition  [PDF]
Yu Zhou
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.27075
Abstract: Traditional ECG acquisition system lacks for flexibility. To improve the flexibility of ECG acquisition system and the signal-to-noise ratio of ECG, a new ECG acquisition system was designed based on DAQ card and Labview and oversampling was implemented in Labview. And analog signal conditioning circuit was improved on. The result indicated that the system could detect ECG signal accurately with high signal-to-noise ratio and the signal processing methods could be adjusted easily. So the new system can satisfy many kinds of ECG acquisition. It is a flexible experiment platform for exploring new ECG acquisition methods.
The Structure of Reflective Function of Higher Dimensional Differential System  [PDF]
Zhengxin Zhou
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.11009
Abstract: In this article, we discuss the structure of reflective function of the higher dimensional differential systems and apply the results to study the existence of periodic solutions of these systems.
Towards Capability Maturity Model of e-Learning Process  [PDF]
Yong Zhou
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.44015
Abstract: ePCMM (e-Learning Process Capability Maturity Model) is used for evaluating the capability and maturity of an institution engaged in e-Learning based on e-Learning key process areas. It is a stepwise process improvement which can be implemented by both staged model and continues model.
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