Using Ecological Floating Bed (EFB) to purify polluted water is a process of ecological restoration at virgin position, as well as a complicated physical, chemical and biological process. Its core is utilizing aquatic plants and root’s microbes to absorb nitrogen and phosphorus elements, degrade organic matter and enrich heavy metal. EFB has been applied to some water pollution control projects at home and abroad, and has got several achievements. However, there are some factors influenced the removal rate of pollutants, including plants, temperature, seasons, processing time, coverage and initial concentration of pollutants. In the future, the development orientation has been prospected from plant and its combinations, the transformation of EFB structure and the utilization of aquatic resources, and probed the technology of EFB’s building and management, to implement the win-win of landscape benefit and ecological function.