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Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among Interns in a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  [PDF]
Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul, Tamunopreye Jaja, Peace Ibo Opara
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104122
Abstract:
Background: Health care workers especially interns may be at increased health risk due to exposure to blood and body fluids. Objective: To determine the prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (EBBF) among interns at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital (UPTH). Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among interns at the UPTH. Informed written consent was obtained. The obtained data from a self-administered questionnaire and Infection Control Team records were analysed using SPSS version 21 and are presented as prose and tables. Results: Eighty four interns were studied giving a response rate of 93.3%: 40 (47.6%) were males while 44 (52.4%) were females giving a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Thirty two (38.1%) were aware of the availability of sharp bins, 55 (65.5%) recapped and discarded into waste bins while 4 (4.8%) discarded into sharp bins without re-capping. Prevalence of EBBF was 89.3%. Thirty one (41.4%) had Blood and Body Fluid Splash (BBFS), 22 (29.3%) had Needle Stick Injury (NSI) while 22 (29.3%) had combined NSI and BBFS. Thirteen (29.5%) of the NSI occurred during rotation in Paediatrics. Seventeen (32.1%) and 16 (30.2%) of BBFS occurred during Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics rotation respectively. Eleven (25%) reported the NSI to the Infection control team (ICT) and 3 (27.3%) completed 28 days of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). Common reason for not reporting was not been aware of the Infection Control Team (ICT) in 10 (30.3%). Conclusion: There is a need for improved training and close supervision of interns.
HIV Encephalopathy (HIVE) in Children at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria  [PDF]
Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul, Boma Alali Ngozi Okoh, Edward Achinike Daniel Alikor
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.96042
Abstract: Background: HIV encephalopathy (HIVE) is associated with cognitive impairment in children with HIV infection, early diagnosis and initiation of HAART may reduce the morbidity associated with HIVE. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIVE and associated comorbiditiesin children at the UPTH. Methodology: This was a retrospective study carried out from January to June 2017. The case notes of all HIV positive children presenting to the Paediatric Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) were studied. Children who met the diagnostic criteria for HIVE according to the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) definition were selected. The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of HIV transmission, CD4 count and associated comorbidities in these children were retrieved from the case notes. Obtained data was analyzed using Epi Info version 7.2. Comparisms of subgroups was carried out using the chi square test while statistical significance at 95% confidence interval was p value < 0.05. Results: A total of thirty five out of the 196 HIV positive children presenting to the hospital had HIV encephalopathy (HIVE) giving a prevalence rate of 17.9%. Of these 35 children, 18 were males and 17 females, giving a male to female ratio of 1:1. The mean age of the children was 5.7 ± 3.1 years. The mean age for the males was 6.4 ± 3.2 years and 5.0 ± 2.8 years for the females. There was no statistically significant difference observed between the sexes (t = 1.35, p = 0.187). Thirty (85.7%) of the patients with HIVE were on HAART at diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of HIV was 3.2 ± 3.1 years and the mean age at diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy was 3.4 ± 3.2 years. The documented route of transmission for all the subjects was mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). Seventy five percent of the children were breastfed from birth and at 6 months all the mothers had discontinued breastfeeding. The mean CD4 count was 1053 ± 630 cells/ml. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent co-morbidity occurring among the patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIVE in children at the UPTH is high and Tuberculosis is the commonest comorbidity. Early infant diagnosis, use of modern diagnostic tool and early initiation of HAART are advocated to reduce its associated morbidity.
A Model for the Quantization of the Hall Resistance in the Quantum Hall Effect  [PDF]
Paul Bracken
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.13023
Abstract: Some aspects of anyon physics are reviewed with the intention of establishing a model for the quantization of the Hall conductance. A single particle Schrödinger model is introduced and coupled with a constraint equation formulated from the anyon picture. The Schrödinger equation-constraint system can be converted to a single nonlinear differential equation and solutions for the model can be produced.
Exposure to Oil during Meiosis Results in Alterations in Meiotic Chromosomes that are Similar to Age-Related Changes in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Paul Goldstein
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13027
Abstract: Exposure of young C. elegans nematodes to three different concentrations of oil resulted in changes in the meiotic chromosomes, nucleus, nucleolus, and nuclear envelope associations. Such alterations decreased the viability and fertility of this organism which was used as a biological model. The morphological changes in the “young” group were similar to nematodes that were senescent and post-reproductive. Comparison of meiotic chromosomes at the pachytene stage of meiosis from young, old, and oil-exposed wild-type hermaphrodites were made following three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections. Age-related and oil-exposure related changes included: 1) Induced condensation of chromatin with increased variance in length of chromosomes; 2) Changes in nuclear and nucleolar volume; 3) Increased density of the nucleoplasm; and 4) Absence of Disjunction Regulator Regions, resulting in the loss of control of the segregation of the X-chromosome into gametes during meiosis. Abnormal clustering of the telomeric ends of the chromosomes was present on the nuclear envelope affecting the segregation of the chromosomes during meiosis.
The Processing of Pictures and Written Words: A Perceptual and Conceptual Perspective  [PDF]
Paul Miller
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27109
Abstract: The present study examines similarities and differences in the processing of drawings and their corresponding names. For this purpose, students were asked to determine as fast as possible the identicalness of two pictures as opposed to the identicalness of their written Hebrew names. Twenty-eight Hebrew native speakers from the fifth grade participated in the experiment. Findings suggest that the human information processing system optimizes the processing of information (words, drawings, etc.) according to specific task requirements or task constraints. Stimulus type per se does not seem to determine the depth of its processing, nor does it seem to directly trigger particular modalities of encoding (perceptual, linguistic, semantic). Finally, the findings warrant the conclusion that superiority effects related to the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli reflect artifacts of task requirements rather than inherent characteristics of stimuli.
Are Sunspots Stabilizing?  [PDF]
Paul Shea
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13023
Abstract: The reduced form solutions of indeterminate rational expectations models often include extraneous expectational errors or “sunspots”. Sunspots are usually modeled as independent of the model’s fundamentals, and are often presumed to result in excess volatility. An alternate approach, however, is to assume that sunspots include both an overreaction or underreaction to fundamentals, as well as genuine extraneous noise. This paper uses a simple linear model to formally show how the relationship between sunspots and fundamentals affects aggregate volatility. Sunspots reduce volatility if 1) they include an undereaction to fundamentals, 2) the variance of genuine extraneous noise is sufficiently small, and 3) the root that causes indeterminacy is sufficiently far from one.
Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant  [PDF]
Paul Smeulders
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34047
Abstract: A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.
Representations of Each Number Type That Differ by Scale Factors  [PDF]
Paul Benioff
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.34057
Abstract: For each type of number, structures that differ by arbitrary scaling factors and are isomorphic to one another are described. The scaling of number values in one structure, relative to the values in another structure, must be compensated for by scaling of the basic operations and relations (if any) in the structure. The scaling must be such that one structure satisfies the relevant number type axioms if and only if the other structure does.
Six Categories of Illnesses  [PDF]
Paul Valent
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.47082
Abstract:

Studies show that between 40% and 60% of patients attending emergency departments have medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) that are determined by psychosocial factors. However, there exists no clear categorization of these factors and the symptoms that they produce. This paper delineates six categories of illnesses that help to overcome this deficit. The categories of illnesses are 1) Typical physical illnesses; 2) Typical psychiatric illnesses; 3) Psychophysiological symptoms; 4) Symptoms associated with reliving traumas; 5) “Cherished” or hysterical symptoms; 6) Symptoms that identify with illnesses of others. Clinical examples of each category are provided.

Why the Expansion of the Universe Appears to Accelerate  [PDF]
Paul Smeulders
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46107
Abstract:

A Speed of Light falling over time inversely proportional to the expansion of the Universe leads to an experimentally observed exponential changing of the Red Shift over time. It is necessary to re-define the Angular Impulse Momentum in order to get a consistent expansion of space on all levels. Conservation of Energy and this newly defined Angular Impulse Momentum then leads to the requirement that all clocks slow down in time inversely proportional to the Red Shift, independent of whether the Speed of Light is constant or not. From the Lorentz equation it then follows that Expansion occurs over space-time and not over space alone. A steady state expansion in true time is then transformed into an exponential expansion for an observer with a local clock. A finite lifetime of the Universe is transformed to an infinite lifetime for these observers including elementary particles.

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