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匹配条件: “Olfat A. Salem” ,找到相关结果约461599条。
Competency Based Nursing Curriculum: Establishing the Standards for Nursing Competencies in Higher Education  [PDF]
Olfat A. Salem, Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah, Murad A. Mubaraki, Isabelita N. Pandaan
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104952
Competency is the basic standard for all healthcare professionals when providing care to recipients. The practice of good nursing begins primarily in the study of the nursing program and in the preparation of a nurse with high efficiency in nursing skills. This paper presents the concept of nursing competencies for Saudi nursing and its importance in implementing the national transition program 20/30, and the nursing competencies framework related to the graduate of the Bachelor of Nursing and the methods used in response to the needs of the academic and educational environment, and the stages to develop a competency-based approach.
Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Wood-habiting Ascomycetes and Leaf-habiting Deturomycetes
A.M. Olfat
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Leaf-wood habitat aquatic fungi play a significant role in the degradation of oil spills in the sea. Oil hydrocarbons with high molecular weight are hydrophobic. Their ordinary degradation in aquatic mediums is not easily possible but thanks to the activity of surfactant producing fungi they have become hydrophilic agents and are degraded. Therefore, using such fungi can help us to eliminate oil pollutants. For this reason the possibility of degrading crude oil with eleven aquatic fungi species from the Ascomycetes and Deutromycetes in oil liquid medium culture under in vitro conditions was examined. There was high correlation between the increase of growth of mycelium fungi and the change of pH in the light and heavy crude culture medium.
Hormonal Requirements Trigger Different Organogenic Pathways on Tomato Nodal Explants  [PDF]
Salem Jehan, A. M. Hassanein
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.411263

In this work, nodal-disk segments (4-6 mm in diameter × 5-6 mm in length) were obtained from established shoot culture, resulted from disinfected tomato seedlings, and they were suitable to induce different organogenic pathway under the influence of specific hormonal treatment. Application of BAP (1-2.5 mg/l) alone or in combination of 0.5 mg/l NAA resulted in induction of shoot formation. Somatic embryogenesis was rarely appeared (6%) when relatively low concentration of BAP (1.5 mg/l) with low concentration of IAA (0.5 mg/l IAA) was applied. Root induction was triggered when nodal explants or shoot cuttings were cultured on MS medium with (1 mg/l IAA, IBA or NAA) or without auxins, but the best result was obtained when 1 mg/l IAA was used. Application of 0.5 mg/l NAA stimulated callus formation but the best result was obtained when the three different phytohormoes were used (0.5 mg/l 2,4-D + 1 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP). These results indicated that nodal segments, as described in this protocol, can be used as alternative to other types of explants such as cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf explants.

IL-17 and IL-11 GCF Levels in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis Patients: Relation to PCR Bacterial Detection
Olfat G. Shaker,Noha A. Ghallab
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/174764
Abstract: Objectives. This study evaluated IL-17 and IL-11 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) patients in relation to periodontopathic bacteria. Subjects and Methods. GCF samples were collected from 65 subjects including 25 CP, 25 GAgP, and 15 controls (C) and analyzed for IL-17 and IL-11 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Molecular detection of bacteria in the dental plaque was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results. The total amount of IL-17 was significantly higher in GAgP group than in GCP and C groups . The IL-11 concentration was significantly higher in C and GCP groups than GAgP group . The IL-11/IL-17 ratio was significantly higher in the C group than in GCP and GAgP groups . Moreover, GAgP group showed lower ratios of IL-11/IL-17 when compared to GCP group. The high positivity of P. gingivalis in the dental plaque was associated with significantly increased GCF levels of IL-17 in GCP and GAgP patients. Conclusions. The increased IL-17 level in GCF of GAgP suggests a potential role in the aetiopathogenesis. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of IL-11/IL-17 might reflect an imbalance between the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in different periodontal diseases. 1. Introduction Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of tooth-supporting tissues [1]. The red-complex bacteria including, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were shown to have the closest association with the severity of periodontitis [2, 3] besides this group, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia. A complex cytokine network is synthesized in response to these periodontopathogenic bacteria [4] and plays an important role in periodontal disease [5]. The structure of bioactive bacterial compounds differs substantially between different bacteria and subsequently resulting in differences in cytokine production [6]. Exciting new evidence has emerged introducing a novel subset of T-helper (Th) lymphocytes termed “Th17” [7]. The role of Th17 cells and their specific cytokines (IL-17) in periodontal disease is just beginning to be investigated [8]. IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates a variety of cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α [9]. Although Th17 pathways are mostly associated with protection against bacteria via recruitment of phagocytes [10], they have also been proposed to enhance alveolar bone resorption [11]. Previous studies
Biochemical Markers Of Bone Turnover in Egyptian Women at Different Ages
Olfat A Khalil &Kholoud S Ramadan
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by bone remodeling .This study was done for the detection of some blood and urine markers in cases of osteoporosis among Egyptian women at different ages .The study included 100 women divided into three groups. The first group included 33 women their ages ranged between 35-45 years old, the second included 33 women their ages ranged between 45-55 years old and the third group included 34 women their ages were above 55 years old. Fore all subjects DEXA densitometry was performed. Serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, Osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline and creatinine were estimated. Results: In osteopenic and osteoporotic women there was elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin and in urinary pyridinoline and hydroxyproline, while there was decrease in serum calcium .Conclusion: The Egyptian women subjected to the study were suffering from osteopenia from the age of 35 years old or may be earlier Above the age of 55 (postmenopausal) it was found that 50% of women were osteopenic and osteoporotic.
Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) in Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases  [PDF]
Michael Nacif, Olfat Shaker
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.57082

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily is a key player in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological processes from development to pathogenesis. Since the discovery of the prototypic member, TGF-β, almost three decades ago, there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of its complex biology. TGF-β misregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including cancer with a direct role in facilitating metastasis, fibrosis and inflammation. Consequently, TGF-β is currently explored as a prognostic candidate biomarker of tumor invasiveness and metastasis; and it offers an attractive target for cancer therapy. Several anti-TGF-β approaches, such as TGF-β antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides and small molecules inhibitors of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase, have shown great promise in

Analysis of Inconsistencies in Object Oriented Metrics  [PDF]
Ahmed M. Salem, Abrar A. Qureshi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.42013
Abstract: Software Metrics have been proposed for procedural and object oriented paradigms to measure various attributes like complexity, cohesion, software quality, and productivity. Among all of these, “Complexity” and “Cohesion” are considered to be the most important attributes. As object oriented analysis and design appears to be at the forefront of software engineering technologies, many different object-oriented complexity and cohesion metrics have been developed. The aim of the paper is to compare some of the complexity and cohesion metrics and to analyze these metrics and expose their inconsistencies. The paper provides a brief introduction of CK and Morris’s metrics for calculating the complexity and cohesion of a software. The inconsistencies in these methods are exposed by providing various examples. The paper concludes by proving inconsistencies in CK’s cohesion matrices and Morris’s complexity matrices.
Sphincter Saving Surgeries for Locally Advanced Low Rectal Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation  [PDF]
Mohamed A. E. Salem, Hamza A. Hamza, Gamal Amira, Abeer E. Ibrahium, Ahmed A. S. Salem
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.47143

Background: Rectal cancer accounts for the largest distribution within one anatomical region of the large bowel, with approximately one third of all CRC located within the rectum. The Golden standard treatment of primary rectal cancer is curative surgical resection; however, a fine balance remains between disease cure and restoration of gastrointestinal continuity. Combined modality has proven efficacy in many malignant tumors with advantage of organ preservation. Methods: Forty nine (49) patients with low rectal carcinoma were included in a prospective study, between Jan 2007 and Jan 2012. Preoperative chemoradiation was administrated to all patients and subjected to different techniques of sphincter saving surgery. Stage I and Stage IV disease at diagnosis were excluded from the study. Results: Forty nine patients were included in the study. 27 (55%) patients were male and 22 (45%) were female; the age ranges from 23 years to 70 years with the median age 46 years. The main presenting symptoms were bleeding per rectum and tenesmus, Stage II 18 patients (36.7%), stage III 31 patients (63.3%). Complete clinical and pathological response in 3 patients (6%), and complete clinical response with only microscopically residual carcinoma in 20 patients (41%), partial response in 18 patients (36.7%), and no significant response in 8 patients (16%) 7 from 8 were mucoid carcinoma. Low anterior resection (LAR) in 22 patients (44.9%), Hartman’s procedure in 4 patients (8.1%), Coloanal pull-through (COP) was done in 19 patients (38.9%) and perineal colostomy in 4 patients (8.1%). For patients with colo-anal pull-through technique complete dehiscent and retraction observed in 2 cases, Major leakage in one case, stenosis in 4 cases. Conclusion: There is tendency of colorectal cancers to affect younger groups. Most

Biological Method to Quantify Progressive Stages of Decay in Five Commercial Woods by Coriolus versicolor
A.M. Olfat,A.N. Karimi,D. Parsapajouh
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: : Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority.
Degradation of Crude Oil and Beech Wood by Coriolus versicolor
A.M. Olfat,A.N. Karimi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Polynuclear-aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important environmental pollutant agents and relatively resistance to degrading. White rot fungi are wood degrading basidiomycetes that not only degrade Lignin but also the vast environmental pollutant. In this research capability of Coriolus versicolor for crude oil and beech wood degradation in the presence of surfactant and wood preservative evaluated. There were high correlation among the increasing mycelium growth and the decreasing wood mass and degrading crude oil that shows high capacity for degradation.

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