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OALib Journal期刊

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Damage Detection from SAR Imagery: Application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007 Peru Earthquakes
Giovanna Trianni,Paolo Gamba
International Journal of Navigation and Observation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/762378
Abstract: This paper is focused on the improvement and further validation of a recently proposed approach for the joint use of radar satellite imagery of an area affected by a major disaster and ancillary data. The study was carried out at different sites on imagery of two different earthquakes occurred one in the Mediterranean coast of Algeria on May 21st, 2003, which severely affected the city of Boumerdes, and one in the Pacific Coast of Peru on August, 15th, 2007. The combination of different radar-extracted features results in very fuzzy classification of the damage patterns, far less detailed than what available using optical imagery. However, focused results using the above-mentioned ancillary data provide enough detail and precision to be comparable with them. In particular, quantized damage level at the block level is achieved at enough detail using ALOS/PALSAR data and thus validates the original idea.
Efficient detection and decoding of q-ary LDPC coded signals over partial response channels
Andrea Marinoni, Pietro Savazzi and Paolo Gamba
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1687-1499-2013-18
Abstract: In this study, we consider the ways for concatenating the intersymbol interference (ISI) detector with a q-ary low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder for transmissions over partial response (PR) channels. LDPC codes allow achieving performance close to the channel capacity in additive white Gaussian noise channels, while designing receivers employing these codes for transmissions over channels affected by ISI is still an open issue. Turbo equalization schemes are considered with a novel joint message-passing-based receiver, which is derived from a recently proposed joint algorithm for binary LDPC codes. Simulation results provide performance evaluation of these systems over three different PR channels, together with an analysis of the trade-off between error-rate performance and complexity.
An Iterative Algorithm for Joint Symbol Timing Recovery and Equalization of Short Bursts
Pietro Savazzi,Paolo Gamba,Lorenzo Favalli
Journal of Communications , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.3.4.34-40
Abstract: In this work a joint clock recovery (CR) and equalization scheme for short burst transmissions is presented. The joint optimization performance may be pursued by means of both data aided and decision directed solutions. The novel algorithm is based on an iterative scheme, exploiting a timing error function sampled at symbol rate. The symbol timing adjustment is implemented by an interpolation filter, built according to the Farrow structure. Equalization is obtained by baud spaced zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) linear filtering. Performance is evaluated by simulating a QPSK transceiver and simulations results are compared with the ideal solutions, for both symbol timing recovery and channel equalization, under frequency selective multipath fading channel conditions.
A Review of Human Cysticercosis and Diagnostic Challenges in Endemic Resource Poor Countries  [PDF]
Gamba Gamba Nkwengulila
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.44029
Abstract: Human cysticercosis is a neglected tropical parasitic zoonotic disease with high public health concerns. Infection of Taenia solium cysticerci in the brain commonly known as neurocysticercosis is a cause to over 29% of all epileptic cases in endemic countries. Unfortunately, this infection can go unnoticed for over 10 years. The objective of this review was to characterize the diagnostic approaches accessible in endemic poor resource countries. The review sought literature from library catalogues and public databases for studies on epidemiology and diagnosis challenges of human cysticercosis. The search key words included “Taenia solium, T. solium cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis and diagnosis”. Most of the diagnostic procedures rely on serology. Neuroimaging tools which would confirm and thus enable the assessment of the burden of the disease in endemic countries are rarely used. Therefore assessing the estimate on prevalence and burden of the disease fallacious is owing to the low sensitivity of serological tools and the inhibition of humoral, cellular immune responses, inflammatory reaction and cytokines by the living cysticerci.
The Financial Costs Associated with Porcine Cysticercosis and Epilepsy in Iringa Rural District  [PDF]
Gamba Nkwengulila
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.621334
Abstract: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease that poses serious public health risk and significant economic losses in the pig industry. Human neurocysticercosis is recognized as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where T. solium is endemic. The monetary burden caused by T. solium cysticercosis condemned pigs and epilepsy is under-reported in Tanzania, Iringa rural district being no exception. The aim of the present study was to estimate the financial costs associated with porcine cysticercosis (PCC) and epilepsy in Iringa rural areas. The study employed questionnaires and interviews to explore the public health and socio-economic impacts of T. solium cysticercosis. A total of 365 randomly selected participants comprising of 306 pig farmers and 59 families with epileptic patients were involved in the survey. The findings indicated that the average selling price was USD 84 for mature pigs and ranged from USD 13 - 27 for piglets. The estimated annual monetary loss due to PCC was USD 144,449. The estimated monetary burden due to epilepsy management in hospitals and/or by traditional healers was USD 78,592 per annum. It is concluded that the monetary burden incurred by pig farmers due to PCC caused economic loss at both the subsistence and commercial levels. Yet, epilepsy has serious potential economic impacts through direct and indirect costs incurred on the management of epileptic patients from family to national level. It is hence recommended to practice indoor pig keeping for the elimination of economic losses caused by PCC infection. There is an urgent need to raise awareness on the economic burden caused by porcine cysticercosis and epilepsy in Iringa rural district.
Low Complexity Indoor Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks by UWB and Inertial Data Fusion
Alberto Savioli,Emanuele Goldoni,Pietro Savazzi,Paolo Gamba
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Precise indoor localization of moving targets is a challenging activity which cannot be easily accomplished without combining different sources of information. In this sense, the combination of different data sources with an appropriate filter might improve both positioning and tracking performance. This work proposes an algorithm for hybrid positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks based on data fusion of UWB and inertial information. A constant-gain Steady State Kalman Filter is used to bound the complexity of the system, simplifying its implementation on a typical low-power WSN node. The performance of the presented data fusion algorithm has been evaluated in a realistic scenario using both simulations and realistic datasets. The obtained results prove the validity of this approach, which efficiently fuses different positioning data sources, reducing the localization error.
An Autonomous Long Range Monitoring System For Emergency Operators
Matteo Lanati,Davide Curone,Emanuele Lindo Secco,Giovanni Magenes,Paolo Gamba
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Miniaturization and portability of new electronics lead up to wearable devices embedded within garments: a European program called ProeTEX developed multi-purpose sensors integrated within emergency operators' garments in order to monitor their health state and the surrounding environment. This work deals with the development of an autonomous Long Range communication System (LRS), suitable to transmit data between operators' equipment and the local command post, where remote monitoring software is set up. The LRS infrastructure is based on Wi-Fi protocol and modular architecture. Field tests carried out on the developed prototype showed a high reliability in terms of correctly exchanged data and recovering capabilities in case of temporary disconnection, due to the operator's movements.
Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst: A Retrospective Analysis (Cancer of the Thyroid or Primary Cancer of the Thyroglossal Cyst)  [PDF]
Paolo Gamba, Umberto Pignatelli, Giampiero D’Addazio, Gabriella Licursi, Luca Gentile, Ugo Moz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104259
Abstract:
Thyroglossal duct cysts are one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the cervical region. Complications of these swellings are rare, and among these, appearance of a carcinoma has also been noted. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma (TGDC) is a rare entity and its management is controversial. The incidence of thyroid papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst is less than 1%, in most cases, the diagnosis is made postoperatively. We report the case of an adult female patient with a papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst. Our aim is defining a clinical protocol to diagnose the thyreoglossal duct carcinoma through clinical features, radiological investigations, cytological and histopathological examinations and, through this diagnostic protocol, to choose the best surgical approach. The literature contains 300 cases of this pathology; papillary histotype constitutes about 80%, then squamocellular carcinoma, mixed folliculo-papillary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma follow. The literature suggests two different hypotheses: neoplasia originating from ectopic thyroid tissue and plurifocal theory. The adopted diagnostic investigations are: ultrasonography, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our patient was treated using a modified Sistrunk’s procedure operation, in which thyroidectomy proved crucial for the correct diagnosis and continuation of appropriate treatment. Our case confirms the difficulty in distinguishing a primitive thyroglossal duct carcinoma from a synchronous metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. This dilemma often remains unresolved. The two different surgical approaches reported in the literature, one more conservative and the other more aggressive, apparently alternatives are instead complementary and adequate when strict diagnostic criteria and adequate follow-up, are observed. The first year follow-up includes the thyroglobulin level determination and a neck ecografic scan every 3 months. The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.
Macroscopic electrostatic potentials and interactions in self-assembled molecular bilayers: the case of Newton black films
Z. Gamba
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2996295
Abstract: We propose a very simple but 'realistic' model of amphiphilic bilayers,simple enough to be able to include a large number of molecules in the sample, but nevertheless detailed enough to include molecular charge distributions, flexible amphiphilic molecules and a reliable model of water. All these parameters are essential in a nanoscopic scale study of intermolecular and long range electrostatic interactions. We also propose a novel, simple and more accurate macroscopic electrostatic field for model bilayers. This model goes beyond the total dipole moment of the sample, which on a time average is zero for this type of symmetrical samples, i. e., it includes higher order moments of this macroscopic electric field. We show that by representing it with a superposition of gaussians it can be 'analytically' integrated, and therefore its calculation is easily implemented in a MD simulation (even in simulations of non-symmetrical bi- or multi-layers). In this paper we test our model by molecular dynamics simulations of Newton black films.
Effective potentials and electrostatic interactions in self-assembled molecular bilayers II: the case of biological membranes
Z. Gamba
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.3026662
Abstract: We propose a very simple but realistic enough model which allows to include a large number of molecules in molecular dynamics MD simulations of these bilayers, but nevertheless taking into account molecular charge distributions, flexible amphiphilic molecules and a reliable model of water. All these parameters are essential in a nanoscopic scale study of intermolecular and long range electrostatic interactions. This model was previously used by us to simulate a Newton black film and in this paper we extend our investigation to bilayers of the biological membrane type. The electrostatic interactions are calculated using Ewald sums and, for the macroscopic long range electrostatic interactions, we use our previously proposed coarsed fit of the (perpendicular to the bilayer plane) molecular charge distributions with gaussian distributions. To study an unique biological membrane (not an stack of bilayers), we propose a simple effective external potential that takes into account the microscopic pair distribution functions of water and is used to simulate the interaction with the surrounding water. The method of effective macroscopic and external potentials is extremely simple to implement in numerical simulations, and the spatial and temporal charge inhomogeneities are then roughly taken into account. Molecular dynamics simulations of several models of a single biological membrane, of neutral or charged polar amphiphilics, with or without water (using the TIP5P intermolecular potential for water) are included.
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