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OALib Journal期刊

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Agronomic Performance and Sensory Evaluation of Lablab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) Accessions for Human Consumption in Uganda  [PDF]
Peace Kankwatsa, Robert Muzira
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104481
Abstract:
Lablab (Lablab purpureus) germplasm was evaluated to identify high grain yielding and palatable accessions that were suitable for human consumption in Uganda. A preference analysis was done to identify accessions that had a high probability of being accepted by farmers. Accessions 29399, 29400, 29803, 30701, 31364, CQ3620, Q5427, Q6988, 52518B, Q6880B, 31364, CQ3621 and Lablab Uganda had high yields, which partly resulted from their high tolerance of the prevailing stresses (diseases, pests and low soil moisture). Accessions 29400, Lablab Uganda, Njahi. 29399, 36019, Q5427, Q6988, 30701 and 31364 scored highly based on the sensory attributes. Accessions Lablab Uganda, Njahi, 29400 and Q69887 were the most accepted for adoption by farmers based on their high agronomic performance. Lablab Uganda, Njahi, 29400 and Q69887 had the most preferred palatability characteristics for human consumption.
Yield Performance of Improved Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Varieties under Pure Stand and Banana Intercrop Methods in Semi-Arid Agroecological Zone of South Western Uganda  [PDF]
Robert Muzira, Peace Kankwatsa, Steven Byenkya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104089
Abstract:
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is increasingly becoming an important crop in East Africa due to its desirable attributes such as high drought tolerance, nitrogen fixation, grain/seed productivity, and market potential. Chickpea is a major source of high quality protein for human diets and has potential of bridging the nutritional gap among rural households during drought periods. With the aim of improving household income in South Western Uganda, National Agricultural Advisory Services introduced several chickpea varieties between 2004 and 2007 in the zone targeting a local agro-producer processor.  However, due to the limited capacity of the processor to buy all chickpea produce, most farmers abandoned the crop since there was no other alternative use or markets known. Apart from lack of market, chickpea has the potential to improve nutrition among the vulnerable rural households if its production and consumption are enhanced. Due to chickpea ability to improve soil fertility, and survive under low moisture conditions where other common crops cannot survive, it can also be a source of food especially in period when there is food scarcity. Although, Chickpea had great potential of being adopted in the region, its agronomic performance (grain yields) and adaptability to the existing cropping systems in the semi-arid zone of South Western Uganda is not known. Therefore, this research was conducted to ascertain the potential yields and appropriate cropping method, which will result into higher productivity. Farmer participatory research was conducted to assess grain yields of five improved chickpea varieties (ICCV 96329, ICCV 00305, ICCV 97105, ICCV 92318 and ICCV 00108) using banana-intercrop and pure stand cropping methods. Eighty nine farmers hosted the experiment on behalf of the community. Results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in grain yields among the chickpea varieties. However, grain yields from chickpea planted as pure stand were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that obtained from banana-intercrop. This implies that competition with banana for moisture, nutrient and light significantly suppressed the yielding potential of chickpea in the banana intercrop.
Assessment of Soil Nutrients Limiting Sustainable Potato Production in the Highlands of South-Western Uganda  [PDF]
Robert Muzira, Twaha Basamba, John Steven Tenywa
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104440
Abstract:
Soil fertility management is one of the major strategies for improving potato productivity in the highlands of south-western Uganda. Land belonging to potato farmers is highly fragmented hindering sustainable potato production under small-holder farming systems. Land fragmentation brings a major challenge to small-scale farmers in soil fertility management, increasing costs of production. However, identifying major soil nutrients limiting potato production in the highlands of south-western Uganda is an avenue of applying appropriate soil nutrients to improve potato productivity without degrading the soils. It also assists farmers in investing in the necessary soil nutrients and, hence reducing the costs of production while improving potato productivity. The study indicated that soil potassium was the most single significant soil nutrient limiting potato productivity especially in the fields located on hilltops and far from homesteads. Hence, it was imperative that farmers apply potassium containing fertilizers to minimize potassium depletion but also increase potato productivity. It was also important for farmers to always integrate disease management with soil nutrient management for improved potato productivity.
Linking Soil Conservation in Potato Production Systems in the Highlands of Southwestern Uganda to Gender and Farmer-Market Types  [PDF]
Robert Muzira, John Steven Tenywa, Twaha Basamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104422
Abstract:
Rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa develop different livelihood strategies driven by opportunities and constraints encountered in existing biophysical and socioeconomic environments. A study on gender effects under two market linkages on investments in soil conservation innovations in potato production systems was conducted in the highlands of southwestern Uganda. There were significant differences in land size under fallow belonging to Male Headed Households (MHHs) and Female Headed Households (FHHs) with urban and non-urban market linkages (p < 0.05). None the less both FHHs and MHHs had more land under fallow. This was attributed to the trainings farmers obtained in the control of bacterial wilt of potato through integrating fallow period in the potato cropping systems. Under urban and non-urban market linkages, there were no significant differences in percentage distribution of potato fields for MHHs and FHHs without soil conservation structure (p > 0.05). This was attributed to limited land holdings owned by farmers that are intensively cultivated.
Introduction to a Requirements Engineering Framework for Aeronautics  [PDF]
Robert Abo
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39105
Abstract: This paper introduces a framework to produce and to manage quality requirements of embedded aeronautical systems, called the ‘Requirements Engineering Framework’ (REF). It aims at making the management of the requirement lifecycle easier, from the specification of the purchaser’s needs, to their implementation in the final products, and also their verification, while controlling costs. REF is based on the main standards of aeronautics, in particular RTCA DO-254, and RTCA DO-178B standards. An implementation of REF, using the IBM Rational DOORS and IBM Rational Change tools, is also presented in this paper.
Pricing Options in Jump Diffusion Models Using Mellin Transforms  [PDF]
Robert Frontczak
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.33037
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the valuation of options in jump diffusion models. The partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) inherent in the pricing problem is solved by using the Mellin integral transform. The solution is a single integral expression independent of the distribution of the jump size. We also derive analytical expressions for the Greeks. The results are implemented and compared to other approaches.

Australia’s Out-Dated Concern over Fishing Threatens Wise Marine Conservation and Ecologically Sustainable Seafood Supply  [PDF]
Robert Kearney
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32006
Abstract:

Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition and its increased consumption is actively recommended for sustenance and health benefits in both developing and developed countries. In parallel to this, the public receives confusing advice as to what seafood is sustainably produced and is frequently misled about the environmental impacts of fishing, especially in locations such as Australia where contemporary fishery management has a conservation and sustainability focus. It is recognised globally that Australia’s traditional fishery management driven by strict sustainability and biodiversity regulations, has achieved impressive results in managing both fish stocks and the effects of fishing on marine environments. Despite this, continued pressure from non-government organisations (NGOs) and a perpetuation of the misuse of management terms such as overfished is used to promote the misguided need for ever increasing fishing restrictions, most obviously in protected areas. This paper questions the motives of some NGOs and governments in Australia in pursuing additional restrictions on fishing which are mostly unnecessary and disproportionate to the sustainability requirements of other sources of food. This is done within the context of the global need for sustainable seafood supply and the need for effective marine conservation that addresses all threats to marine ecosystems in proportion to the magnitude of each threat.

Wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients—A perspective review  [PDF]
Robert LeMoyne
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2013.24021
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease is a growing medical concern as societies, such as the United States of America, become progressively aged. Therapy strategies exist for the amelioration of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, and the quantification of attributes, such as hand tremor, can provide valuable feedback. Wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients have been progressively advanced over the course of the past half-decade. In particular, wireless accelerometer nodes and smartphones, such as the iPhone, hold promise for optimizing therapy strategy by providing convenient quantified feedback. This perspective review addresses the current advances in wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients and forecasts for the near future.
A Study of Lateralized Cognitive Processes in Upper-Division Electrical Engineering Students’: Correlating Written Language Functions with Analytical Reasoning in Microelectronics  [PDF]
Robert Melendy
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.22008
Abstract: The human brain is asymmetrical in function, with each of its two hemispheres being somewhat responsible for distinct cognitive and motor tasks, to include writing. It stands to reason that engineering students who have established entrance into their upper-division programs will have demonstrated cognitive proficiency in math and logical operations, abstract and analytical reasoning and language usage, to include writing. In this study the question was asked: is there a correlation between an upper-division electrical engineering students’ analytical reasoning ability and their descriptive writing ability? Descriptive writing is taken here to mean a students’ ability to identify key physical aspects of a mathematical model and to express—in words—a concise and well-balanced description that demonstrates a deep conceptual understanding of the model. This includes more than a description of the variables or the particular application to an engineering problem; it includes a demonstrated recognition of the basic physics that govern the model, certain limitations (idealizations) inherent in the model, and an understanding of how to make practical experimental measurements to verify the governing physics in the model. A student at this level may demonstrate proficiency in their analytical reasoning skills and hence be capable of correctly solving a given problem. However, this does not guarantee that the same student is skilled in associating equations with their physical meaning on a deep conceptual level or in understanding physical limitations of the equation. Consequently, such a student may demonstrate difficulty in mapping their comprehension of the model into written language that demonstrates a sound conceptual understanding of the governing physics. The findings represent a sample of two independent class sections of Electrical and Computer Engineering junior’s first course in Microe-lectronic Devices and Circuits during fall semesters 2012 and 2013 at a private mid-size university in NW Oregon. A total of three exams were administered to each of the 2012/2013 groups. Correlations between exam scores that students achieved on their descriptive writing of microelectronics phenomena and their analytical problem-solving abilities were examined and found to be quite significant.
Foilized pouches can prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child using multi-drug therapies  [PDF]
Robert Malkin
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.71007
Abstract: Children can become HIV positive (HIV+) from their mother during home birth. If the infant ingests antiretroviral (ARV), medications immediately after birth, the risk of transmission can be dramatically reduced. We have previously proposed the use of foilized, polyethylene-lined pouches to store ARV’s. Using the pouch, the mother receives the medication at an antenatal care visit, months before delivery, and if she delivers at home, tears open the pouch and drips the medication into her child’s mouth. In this work, we extend the use of the pouch to store a modern ARV, Lamivudine (3TC), often used in multi-drug regimens. Under laboratory conditions, pouches were filled with 3TC and stored at 25?C/60% relative humidity (RH) for twelve months. We found that the 3TC was stable throughout the year (maximum 5.6% of labeled concentration change). The preservatives were somewhat degraded by the act of repackaging the medicine, but sufficient preservatives remained to maintain the medication. The same impurities were identified in the 3TC stored in the pouches and the samples removed from the bottles indicating that the pouches do not introduce new impurities (impurities that are not already introduced by the bottle). We conclude that the pouch can preserve this modern ARV for up to twelve months.
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