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The Challenge of UNASUR Member Countries to Replace ICSID Arbitration  [PDF]
Silvia Karina Fiezzoni
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.23014
Abstract: In the 2000s, the financial crisis in Argentina and several nationalizations carried out by governments in South America have spawned a large number of claims before International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Latin Americans began to look at ICSID critically, there have been complaints about ICSID's connections with the World Bank; non-commercial interests, such as health or environmental protection, have not received adequate attention in the arbitration cases; a lack of transparency by arbitration panels; and the absence of an appeals process, but only a limited annulment procedure. This situation generates impacts upon the overall due process of ICSID arbitrations and Latin American hostility against ICSID, such the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of our America Peoples'Trade Treaty (ALBA-TCP) Declaration to denounce ICSID Convention and the firm intention of Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) countries to create a regional arbitration centre to replace ICSID arbitration.
On the Relativistic Stars  [PDF]
Silvia Morales, Roberto Aquilano
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34046
Abstract:

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??Announcement from Editorial Board

The following article has been retracted due to plagiarism. This paper published in Vol.3 No.4, April 2012, has been removed from this site.


Title: On the Relativistic Stars

Author: Silvia Morales, Roberto Aquilano


It has been brought to our attention that this paper appears exactly as it was published in Astroparticle Physics, vol. 32, 2009, 153. (\"On the nature of relativistic stars\" by Silvia Morales, Alejandra Zorzi, Roberto Aquilano)

Consequently, this paper has been retracted by Journal of Modern Physics.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?JMP Editorial Board

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?April 30, 2015

Use of Alternative and Complementary Medicine by Old Italians Adults: The Determinant of Choice  [PDF]
Silvia Platania, Giuseppe Santisi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37042
Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that aren’t part of standard care. Although using complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent in Italy, research in complementary and alternative therapy in older adults is limited. This study investigates the predictors and the determinant of choice of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in older adult consumers [1]-[3]. The sample consisted of 150 Italian older consumers who used alternative medicine in the last year. The older adults interviewed were 52 males (34.7%) and 98 females (65.3%) and the average age was 65.4 (SD = 0.76). The results of this study showed a strong dissatisfaction of respondents with the tra-ditional medical treatments because the alternative’s medicine treatments are considered more invasive.
A general multivariate latent growth model with applications in student careers Data warehouses
Silvia Bianconcini,Silvia Cagnone
Statistics , 2009, DOI: 10.3102/1076998610396886
Abstract: The evaluation of the formative process in the University system has been assuming an ever increasing importance in the European countries. Within this context the analysis of student performance and capabilities plays a fundamental role. In this work we propose a multivariate latent growth model for studying the performances of a cohort of students of the University of Bologna. The model proposed is innovative since it is composed by: (1) multivariate growth models that allow to capture the different dynamics of student performance indicators over time and (2) a factor model that allows to measure the general latent student capability. The flexibility of the model proposed allows its applications in several fields such as socio-economic settings in which personal behaviours are studied by using panel data.
Estimation of latent variable models for ordinal data via fully exponential Laplace approximation
Silvia Bianconcini,Silvia Cagnone
Statistics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmva.2012.06.005
Abstract: Latent variable models for ordinal data represent a useful tool in different fields of research in which the constructs of interest are not directly observable. In such models, problems related to the integration of the likelihood function can arise since analytical solutions do not exist. Numerical approximations, like the widely used Gauss Hermite (GH) quadrature, are generally applied to solve these problems. However, GH becomes unfeasible as the number of latent variables increases. Thus, alternative solutions have to be found. In this paper, we propose an extended version of the Laplace method for approximating the integrals, known as fully exponential Laplace approximation. It is computational feasible also in presence of many latent variables, and it is more accurate than the classical Laplace method.
Decision Making Styles and Adaptive Algorithms for Human Action  [PDF]
Mauro Maldonato, Silvia Dell’ Orco
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28124
Abstract: Without human beings’ ability to choose – and in such a way give order to a universe which, in the beginning, must have presented itself as a chaotic mass of data without clear structures and regularity – evolution would have been unthinkable, even more inconceivable if one considers the fact that the adaptation to that universe must have taken place on the basis of incomplete, fragmentary information and above all starting from limited cognitive capacities and restricted time limits. In order to respond to the challenges of the environment, an individual had to first of all be quick: quick in the reaction to the attack of a predator and in the gaining of an escape route, in deciding how to pursue pray, in obtaining gains from territory that others were using at that same moment, in the selection of a partner and of a place in which to take refuge and so forth. Therefore, if it is true that evolutionary pressure urged the human mind to accumulate information by means of a significant quota of rational decisions, the vast majority of human choices have been favoured by ecological decision making strategies.
Applicable Quality Models in Higher Education in Argentina  [PDF]
Lidia Giuffré, Silvia E. Ratto
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.410A005
Abstract: The aim of this paper is the study of quality management systems applied to higher education. The specific objectives are to present different models of approach to the concept of quality education applicable in Argentina: to study the legal framework governing university education, and to introduce considerations about its evaluation. The National Education Law 26026/2006 is clear about State responsibility to ensure quality education for all residents, and implementation of assessment policy to secure it. Accreditation is the process commonly used to give public account of the degree of compliance of higher education institutions. Periodic accreditation of undergraduate careers, whose titles correspond to professions regulated by the State, is performed. External evaluations present evaluation reports that are public.
Validation of a Statistical Forecast Model for Zonda Wind in West Argentina Based on the Vertical Atmospheric Structure  [PDF]
Federico A. Norte, Silvia Simonelli
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.61004
Abstract: Zonda is a strong, warm, very dry wind associated with adiabatic compression upon descending the eastern slopes of the Andes Cordillera in western-central Argentina. This research seeks, first, to validate the skill of a statistical forecast of zonda based on the behavior of the vertical structure of the atmosphere and, second, to describe the climatology of the vertical profile leeward of the Andes. The forecast was built for May-August 1974/1983, and was verified against a series of cases recorded in the Mendoza Aero and San Juan Aero weather stations for May-August 2005/2014. It made use of the Stepwise Discriminant Analysis (SDA) and rawinsonde data from Mendoza Aero as predictors, with the following input variables: surface pressure, temperature, dew point, and the zonal and meridional components of the wind on surface and of the fixed levels up to 200 hPa. The variables selected as predictors by the SDA were: surface pressure, dew point depression at 850 hPa, meridional wind component at 850 hPa, and zonal wind component at 400 hPa. Climatology of the vertical profile of the atmosphere leeward of the Andes was built from daily rawinsonde data from Mendoza Aero for May-August 1974/1983. Zonda markedly influences the atmospheric structure leeward of the Andes in western-central Argentina. Its maximum impact occurs at 850 to 800 hPa, with significant heating and decrease of humidity. Validation of the prediction program considered deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. Contingency tables show that probability of zonda occurrence in the plains is generally overestimated, and false alarm cases are far more frequent than surprise events. The main contribution of this paper is precisely the validation of the prediction model, which ensures forecasters one more tool to improve zonda forecasting; this, in turn, will aid decision-makers when taking steps to ameliorate zonda wind impact.
Romanian Migration to the Community of Madrid (Spain): Patterns of Mobility and Return
Silvia Marcu
International Journal of Population Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/258646
Abstract: The article analyzes the process by which Romanian immigrants to the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) return to their country. Starting with the empirical reality and the theoretical focuses on human mobility as a form of transnationalism, the article emphasises on the characteristics which distinguish the Romanian collective from other collectives of immigrants living in Spain; circular migration that creates work networks. The paper reflects how the intensive mobility contributes to a process that is continuous and partial—hardly ever final. The first part of the article presents the phases of Romanian migration to the Autonomous Community of Madrid. It then delves into the process by which Romanians return to their country of origin, while detailing those factors that influence their decision. The conclusions point towards a renewal of studies on mobility within the framework of the European Union that links the border dynamic with the migration process. 1. Introduction The fall of the Iron Curtain (1989) meant the first exercise of freedom along with the fall of the totalitarian system for the people of Eastern Europe. A people without a tradition of international migration were to experience foreign viewpoints that were directly inspired by the models that were closest at hand, the careers of those exiled by communist governments. This new mobility was to be noted in the global tendencies of migration worldwide. Throughout the past two decades, the migration of Romanians within Europe has been closely linked to the policies of the European Community. As of the 1990s, Spain became one of the destinations of Romanian emigration. While it was slow at first, as of 2002, with the opening of the EC borders as a result of the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of Romanians, emigration from Romania became greater. The flow of Romanians towards Spain intensified in 2007 when Romania entered the EU. Madrid has continued to be the Autonomous Community where the majority of Romanians have settled in Spain. Networks that favored intense cyclical mobility between Romania and Spain were formed, which has made it impossible to closely follow the annual, monthly, and even daily movement by Romanians. Between 2007 and 2009, Spain and other EU countries imposed a moratorium that prevented Romanians and Bulgarians from freely entering the labour market. After 2009, Spain lifted the moratorium and allowed free circulation for Romanians and Bulgarians (The moratorium on the free circulation of Romanian and Bulgarian workers within Spanish territory lasted
A Survey of Geosensor Networks: Advances in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring
Silvia Nittel
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90705664
Abstract: In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose.
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