Dynamics of flows of
matter and energy these biomes are relevant to understanding of environmental
processes that govern the biosphere-atmosphere interactions and between
ecosystems. This study analyzed inter season and season of energy fluxes in
Brazilian Savana through Bowen Ration Method. Results show differences in
patterns LE in all season, LE predominant in wet while H in dry. This inversion
in patterns of predominant components of the energy balance in wet and dry
season because in wet season increase water content in soil and atmosphere due precipitation
in this season providing more lost energy for atmosphere in shape LE through
soil evaporation and plant transpiration, this results in LE and H in all
season of the Brazilian Savana show higher variation in dynamics energy fluxes
between surface and atmosphere, as well as energy partition in this biome.
Statistics analyses presents than many climate variables influences LE and H in
each season indicating complexity in this fluxes. More study is necessary to
higher understand patterns energies fluxes in Brazilian Savana.
This study aimed to
detect genotypic differences in the resistance to sprouting of wheat grains,
evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for inducing sprouting and
identify, using repeatability estimates, the minimum number of spikes necessary
for the adequate evaluation of the percentage of grain sprouting in the spike
in order to assist in the selection of superior genotypes in breeding programs.
Spikes from four wheat cultivars (Frontana, IPR Catuara, Quartzo and BRS 220)
were evaluated using three methods for inducing grain sprouting in the spike
(water immersion, rainfall simulation and germination chamber). To determine
the most efficient method, repeatability coefficients were estimated through
analysis of variance, principal components analysis and structural analysis
based on correlation and covariance matrices. The induction of sprouting by
immersion in water was the most effective method for indicating genotypic
differences and may be used in breeding
programs for this purpose. The repeatability method based on the components of
covariance was more efficient. A minimum of 11 spikes is required to make a
high-reliability estimate of the percentage of sprouted grains in the spike.