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Endogenous Forest Development Paradigm: Challenging Current Forest Conservation Practices in Ghana  [PDF]
Thomas Agana, Millar Katherine Kaunza, David Millar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104169
Abstract:
The centre of Ghana development is land that plays a vital role. This article focused mainly on the rapid land degradation and deforestation due to bush fires, poorly managed grazing, farming and agricultural conversion, current forest/woodland governance systems and major policy gaps that were identified. A combination of methods used included: Extensive study of secondary literature/reports/programmes/write-ups (from 1999-2004), key informant interview: a one-on-one interview with Government Officials, 7 responsible for forest management, Forestry, Commission and Traditional Institutions (men-10, women-5), elders-6, and functionaries-4 living in the community, phased assertion. The study recommend Forest Management System needs to be evolved that includes the management and development of sacred groves, shrines, sacred bodies and natures, and totems; associated with indigenous agricultural practices and seeds, indigenous agro-ecological management practices, indigenous tree and vegetation management practices, indigenous livelihood developments and human activity systems which are both enhancing and militating against biodiversity conservation and development encourage and systematically develop traditionally protect areas/plants/animals (TPAs). Attention should be paid to conservation of: 1) sacred groves; 2) burial grounds and spiritual lands; 3) sacred water bodies and fauna; 4) totemic animals; 5) traditional cultural practices; 6) farming systems; 7) traditional crop varieties; 8) home gardens; 9) graze-lands and rest lands; 10) wild fruits supply systems.
GWAS of Follicular Lymphoma Reveals Allelic Heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and Suggests Shared Genetic Susceptibility with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma
Karin E. Smedby equal contributor,Jia Nee Foo equal contributor,Christine F. Skibola ?,Hatef Darabi ?,Lucia Conde,Henrik Hjalgrim,Vikrant Kumar,Ellen T. Chang,Nathaniel Rothman,James R. Cerhan,Angela R. Brooks-Wilson,Emil Rehnberg,Ishak D. Irwan,Lars P. Ryder,Peter N. Brown,Paige M. Bracci,Luz Agana,Jacques Riby,Wendy Cozen,Scott Davis,Patricia Hartge,Lindsay M. Morton,Richard K. Severson,Sophia S. Wang,Susan L. Slager,Zachary S. Fredericksen,Anne J. Novak,Neil E. Kay,Thomas M. Habermann,Bruce Armstrong,Anne Kricker,Sam Milliken,Mark P. Purdue,Claire M. Vajdic,Peter Boyle,Qing Lan,Shelia H. Zahm,Yawei Zhang,Tongzhang Zheng,Stephen Leach,John J. Spinelli,Martyn T. Smith,Stephen J. Chanock,Leonid Padyukov,Lars Alfredsson,Lars Klareskog,Bengt Glimelius,Mads Melbye,Edison T. Liu,Hans-Olov Adami,Keith Humphreys ?,Jianjun Liu ?
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001378
Abstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL–associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (ORcombined = 0.64, Pcombined = 2×10?21) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r2<0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012:ORadjusted = 0.70, Padjusted = 4×10?12; rs10484561:ORadjusted = 1.64, Padjusted = 5×10?15). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL–associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORcombined = 1.36, Pcombined = 1.4×10?7). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.
Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Receptor 1 and Vitamin C and Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Families Are Associated with Susceptibility to Lymphoma
Christine F. Skibola, Paige M. Bracci, Eran Halperin, Alexandra Nieters, Alan Hubbard, Randi A. Paynter, Danica R. Skibola, Luz Agana, Nikolaus Becker, Patrick Tressler, Matthew S. Forrest, Sriram Sankararaman, Lucia Conde, Elizabeth A. Holly, Martyn T. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002816
Abstract: Background Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the fifth most common cancer in the U.S. and few causes have been identified. Genetic association studies may help identify environmental risk factors and enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings 768 coding and haplotype tagging SNPs in 146 genes were examined using Illumina GoldenGate technology in a large population-based case-control study of NHL in the San Francisco Bay Area (1,292 cases 1,375 controls are included here). Statistical analyses were restricted to HIV- participants of white non-Hispanic origin. Genes involved in steroidogenesis, immune function, cell signaling, sunlight exposure, xenobiotic metabolism/oxidative stress, energy balance, and uptake and metabolism of cholesterol, folate and vitamin C were investigated. Sixteen SNPs in eight pathways and nine haplotypes were associated with NHL after correction for multiple testing at the adjusted q<0.10 level. Eight SNPs were tested in an independent case-control study of lymphoma in Germany (494 NHL cases and 494 matched controls). Novel associations with common variants in estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and in the vitamin C receptor and matrix metalloproteinase gene families were observed. Four ESR1 SNPs were associated with follicular lymphoma (FL) in the U.S. study, with rs3020314 remaining associated with reduced risk of FL after multiple testing adjustments [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23–0.77) and replication in the German study (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06–0.94). Several SNPs and haplotypes in the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) and MMP9 genes and in the vitamin C receptor genes, solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) and SLC23A2, showed associations with NHL risk. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest a role for estrogen, vitamin C and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of NHL that will require further validation.
Global Chemical Leasing Award 2010  [PDF]
Thomas Jakl
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.21003
Abstract: The Global Chemical Leasing Award was presented for the first time in March 2010 to organizations, companies and individuals for their outstanding efforts to enhance the visibility of Chemical Leasing around the world and reward successful Chemical Leasing initiatives and implementation. Chemical Leasing is the new business model in the field of sound use of chemicals, initiated and subsidized by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, the Environment and Water Management and jointly promoted with UNIDO. The decisive new aspect of this business model, which distinguishes itself from the traditional supplier-user relation, is to make the service performed by the chemical substance the basis of payment for the business operation, e.g. according to cleaned area, treated number of pieces, or performed hours of operation (= unit of payment). In this way an efficient use of chemicals is in the interest of all parties involved. The award was jointly organized by UNIDO and the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, the Environment and Water Management. Organizations, companies and individuals worldwide were able to take part in the competition. The cases of the winners are described in detail and show the applicability of Chemical Leasing to the different industrial processes. Among these are water clarification and oil dehydration in Colombia, mineral water and beverage production in Serbia, oil & gas exploration and production and specifically deep gas field development projects in different places, industrial cleaning with solvents in Austria and textile dyeing in India.
The Effect of Different Movement Exercises on Cognitive and Motor Abilities  [PDF]
Monika Thomas
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.24030
Abstract: The influence of physical activity on motor and cognitive performance has been approved in several studies. However, it is still unclear which functions are affected, and why. It also remains unknown what type of physical training is best suitable. The present study focuses on special movement aspects based on the Brain Gym? program. Four groups of subjects (n = 64) participated in two experiments with pre-post intervention design. In experiment 1 two groups of subjects were exposed to a sensorimotor adaptation study design by executing center out pointing movements under distorted visual feedback conditions with their dominant and non-dominant arm to test for intermanual transfer (IMT) as pre- and posttest. The intervention in both groups consisted of specified movement exercises with the right and left extremities: participants of Experimental group executed movements crossing the body midline and participants of Control group movements without crossing the body midline. Results showed a decreased retention of adaptation but larger IMT for Experimental group during posttest. We conclude that movements crossing the body midline impede retention but enhance IMT of sensorimotor adaptation. A potential relationship to an improvement of communication between the cerebral hemispheres evoked by the movement exercises crossing the body midline is rather speculative. In experiment 2 two groups were exposed to the d2-test measuring concentration and attention and a dice-test testing for visual-spatial abilities as pre- and posttest. The interventions were similar to experiment 1. Results yielded no differences between groups such that different effects of both interventions could not have been shown.
Russell’s Bismarck: Acquaintance Theory and Historical Distance  [PDF]
Thomas Aiello
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.21003
Abstract: The role of acquaintance in Bertrand Russell’s theory of descriptions is antithetical and, indeed, antagonistic toward the practice and assumptions of history. In his 1910 paper “Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description,” Russell attempts to reconcile direct acquaintance (or its inability to determine the personal self of others) with a descriptive knowledge that is both logical and personal. Russell tries to reconcile the internal and external worlds, attempting to explain access to impersonal knowledge inside a framework that doesn’t allow acquaintance with physical objects—he distorts the historical space between researcher and subject. In so doing, he argues for the superiority of acquaintance as an arbiter of knowledge, narrowly avoiding solipsism and wrongly devaluing the most basic of historiograhpical assumptions. His conception creates false historical goals and distorts the space of historical distance, illustrated in this paper through the American slavery studies of Herbert Aptheker, Stanley Elkins, and Kenneth Stampp.
Glucose initially inhibits and later stimulates blood ROS generation  [PDF]
Thomas Stief
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.31003
Abstract:

Background: Glucose is the main substrate for the generation of NADPH, the cofactor of the oxidative burst enzyme NADPH-oxidase of blood neutrophils. Changes in blood glucose are thus expected to modify the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The new blood ROS generation assay (BRGA) quantifies ROS changes induced by blood glucose concentrations as they are found in diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: Citrated or EDTA blood of 6 healthy donors were analyzed in the BRGA: 10 μl sample in black polystyrene F-microwells (Brand 781608) were incubated in triplicate with 125 μl Hanks’ balanced salt solution, 40 μl 0 - 200 mM glucose in 0.9% NaCl (final added conc.: 0 - 41 mM; final basal glucose conc.: about4 mM), 10 μl5 mMluminol, and 10 μl zymosan A (final conc.: 1.9 μg/ml) in 0.9% NaCl. The plates were measured within 0 - 250 min (37) in a photons-multiplyer microtiter plate luminometer (LUmo) with an integration time of 1 s. Results: Up to about 30 min reaction time the mean ROS generation was 50% inhibited by about1 mMadded glucose (= approx. IC50). At ≥80 min reaction time (possibly necessary for full phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the substrate metabolized by G6P-dehydrogenase to generate NADPH, the cofactor of the NADPH-oxidase) the mean ROS generation approximately doubled at about1 mMadded glucose (= approx. SC200) in citrated blood. Discussion: Elevated glucose concentrations not only increase systemic thrombin generation, they can also diminish cellular fibrinolysis and increase systemic inflammation, resulting in a chronic pro-thrombotic state. The fascinating importance of NADPH-oxidases not only in phagocytes but also in the beta cells of pancreas points towards a new pathogenesis explication of diabetes mellitus type 1: whatever stimulus (e.g. a pancreas-tropic virus) could activate the beta cell’s autodestructive NADPH-oxidase.

Regulating Liquidity Risks within “Institutional Protection Schemes”  [PDF]
Thomas Stern
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.53020
Abstract: During an early phase of the financial crisis (2007), many financial institutionsin spite of adequate capital levelsfaced heavy difficulties because they didn’t manage their liquidity profile in a prudent manner. Suddenly the crisis reminded the respective sector on the importance of liquidity to the proper functioning of financial markets. In front of the times of crisis, asset markets were broad and deep, funding was readily available at low cost. The quick change in market conditions showed how fast liquidity can dry up, and that illiquidity can endure for an extended period of time. The banks faced severe stress, which required actions by central banks toone the one handkeep alive both the functioning of capital and money markets andon the other hand support individual banks or banking groups, which lost their most important funding sources. The impact of a liquidity crisis broadly differs among jurisdiction, markets and concrete market participants. Empirically banks, which were very reliant on interbank funding and closely connected to other financial institutions, suffered during the crisis more than e.g. banks with a business model in favour of funding by retail deposits and holding sufficient Liquidity buffers. Especially in Austria and Germany, there is a phenomenon rising of so called “Institutional Protection Schemes” (in the following: “IPS”). The establishment of an IPS means the foundation of a “contractual or statutory liability arrangement which protects those institutions and in particular ensures their liquidity and solvency to avoid bankruptcy where necessary” (Article 113 para 7 CRR). Currently it seems that a huge part of Austrian banks (about 800 institutions in total) will apply for a membership in an IPS. Given that banks within the same IPS are strongly connected and the role of an IPS is to ensure the ongoing solvency and liquidity of its member institutions, such banking networks may create special needs for liquidity risk management and supervision. This paper deals with the question whether IPS’ are sufficiently regulated by CRR and CRD IV, focusing on the topic liquidity and liquidity risk. As mentioned, the basic notion of Basel III focuses on banking groups,
On the Temperature Dependent Excitation and Reflection Spectra of Ln3Al5O12:Ce3+ Ceramics (Ln = Y, Lu) for White LEDs  [PDF]
Thomas Jansen, Thomas Jüstel
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.514110
Abstract: Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and Lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) doped with Ce3+ are widely applied phosphor powders or ceramics for the conversion of blue into green to yellow light in the rapidly expanding market of white light emitting high power LEDs. Surprisingly, the temperature dependent reflection and excitation spectra of these well-established materials have not been investigated until today. In this work, we report the temperature dependence of the reflection and excitation spectra of Ce3+ doped YAG and LuAG in the temperature range from 300 to 800 K.
Validation of the Physical Education Teacher’s Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) Scale  [PDF]
Matthew T. Buns, Katherine Thomas Thomas
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.53019
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) scale, developed by the current investigators, and to compare the ESBI with two other self-efficacy scales that had been used in physical education (TESPE, Chase, Lirgg, & Carson, 2001;TSES, Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES were administered to 60 physical education teachers from 16 school districts in Iowa. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) for the ESBI was .96, and the Equal-Length Spearman Brown split-half coefficient inferred good reliability (r = .90). The ESBI demonstrated better validity and reliability than the previously developed TESPE (Cronbach’s alpha = .89; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .86) and TSES (Cronbach’s alpha = .84; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .79). As a test of concurrent validity for ESBI, Pearson’s product moment correlations were performed to test the extent to which the total efficacy scores and subscales were related. The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES all had significant positive correlations with each other (p < .01). Validation of the three self- efficacy scales was also performed using the ranked Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (PECAT) score for each district as an independent measure. The ESBI scale produced a low but significant correlation (r = .28, p < .05) with PECAT, but TSES and TESPE were not significant. This suggested that ESBI was more related to standards and benchmarks than the other two measures. These results indicate that the ESBI has shown good (versus TESPE) or better (versus TESES) validity and reliability compared with previous work. This work also supports Bandura’s (1986) notion of specificity for self-efficacy.
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