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Arbitrage in General Equilibrium  [PDF]
Oscar Varela
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.34051
Abstract: Normal trade in goods assumes two sectors that co-exist for reasons such as comparative advantage and interact via trade. Arbitrage trade in goods assumes two markets that artificially exist and converge via trade. Restoration of the law of one price via arbitrage creates one sector out of two, and in general equilibrium, equalizes opportunity cost of resources used in production. Arbitrage does not occur in a vacuum, such that when the high (low) price of a good decreases (increases) in its artificially segmented market during arbitrage, the supply of the good falls (rises), the resources used intensively in that good earn lower (higher) returns, affecting security prices, and the supply of those resources in that good’s production fall (rise).
System and Policy in the Planning of Higher Education in Mexico  [PDF]
Gonzalo Varela-Petito
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326148
Abstract: In higher education in Mexico, the tension between institutional practice and the directives of government authority produces a scenario of uncertainty. In recent decades the government has used planning mechanisms in an attempt to induce a more solid direction all round. Such a policy tries to assert itself in generic criteria such as the opening of opportunities by increasing student enrollment numbers and the radius of social recruitment. It does not relinquish the maxim of educational achievement and quality of service. Nevertheless, given the interinstitutional complexity of the system, it is hard to ensure that these would bring about significant corrections in the short term. The crux of the matter lies in the resolution of the ties between the government and the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), indeed, between centralization and autonomy. One escape route from this tension has been the parallel growth of the private higher education sub-system, but in relation to the public sector the approach of official policy has been to advance evaluations as a means of information and control.
Facing a Shift in Paradigm at the Bedside?  [PDF]
Borja Vargas, Manuel Varela
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.41008
Abstract:

Our entire medical framework is based on the concept of disease, understood as a qualitative departure from normality (health) with a structural substrate (lesion), and usually an identifiable cause (aetiology). This paradigm is loaded with problems, some of which are discussed in the text. Nevertheless, we study, diagnose and treat diseases, and while often painfully conscious of the dysfunctionalities of this scheme, we can hardly imagine how we could practice medicine otherwise. However, most of the recent developments in basic sciences, and most notably in Immunology, Genetics and -omics, are inconsistent with this “health/disease” paradigm. The emerging scenario is that of complex networks, more in the spirit of Systems Biology. In these settings the qualitative difference between health and disease loses its meaning, and the whole discourse becomes progressively irreducible to our conventional clinical categories. As clinical research stagnates while basic sciences thrive, this gap is widening, and a change in the prevailing paradigm seems unavoidable. However, all our clinical judgments (including Bayesian reasoning and Evidence Based Medicine) are rooted in the disease/health dichotomy, and one can hardly conceive how they could work without it. The shift in paradigm will not be easy, and certain turmoil is to be expected.

Sistema informacional, lectura y conocimiento: Gerenciando el flujo de una herramienta cognitiva hacia la alfabetización informacional
Varela Varela, Aida;
Investigación bibliotecológica , 2008,
Abstract: present technological and scientific circumstances demand new skills which unite reading and writing capabilities, which imply not only dexterous abilities, but, above all, competence. an experience in managing an information system in the educational area -information flow and feedback- whose objective is to initiate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of a cognitive, interactive and constructive tool, is presented: the instrumental enriching program (pei) in school units in the state public network of middle education of bahia, in brazil. the experience meets the challenge of improving the learning-teaching process, and of strengthening information literacy.
Sistema informacional, lectura y conocimiento: Gerenciando el flujo de una herramienta cognitiva hacia la alfabetización informacional Information systems, reading and knowledge: managing the flow of a cognitive tool for information literacy
Aida Varela Varela
Investigación bibliotecológica , 2008,
Abstract: Los nuevos entornos tecnológicos y científicos exigen otras capacidades que unen la lectura y la escritura, una capacidad que se asienta no sólo en destrezas y habilidades, sino sobre todo en competencia. Este artículo presenta una experiencia de gestión sobre un sistema de información en el área educacional -flujo informacional y realimentación- cuyo objetivo es accionar, acompa ar y evaluar la implementación de una herramienta cognitiva, construtivista e interaccionista, el Programa de Enriquecimiento Instrumental - PEI -, en unidades escolares de Ense anza Media de la Red Pública Estatal de Bahía, Brasil. Experiencia que ha enfrentado el desafío para mejorar la calidad del proceso de ense anza y aprendizaje, y fortalecer la Alfabetización Informacional. Present technological and scientific circumstances demand new skills which unite reading and writing capabilities, which imply not only dexterous abilities, but, above all, competence. An experience in managing an information system in the educational area -information flow and feedback- whose objective is to initiate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of a cognitive, interactive and constructive tool, is presented: the Instrumental Enriching Program (PEI) in school units in the State Public Network of Middle Education of Bahia, in Brazil. The experience meets the challenge of improving the learning-teaching process, and of strengthening information literacy.
La militancia social de las mujeres en américa latina y sus dificultades para una lectura de género
Varela,Brisa;
La aljaba , 2012,
Abstract: in this article we wonder about the difficulties that some social activists have to make gendered interpretation of life experience as opposed to reading class that has been built for them.
La visibilización de la experiencia migratoria femenina en situación de genocidio
Varela,Brisa;
La aljaba , 2007,
Abstract: this work presents a case study of migration armenian women in context of the genocide, looking at women as active historical subjects. in the present news these "travelling" contingents, we found armenian men and women who differ from the historical in the relation with the imagined link which they formulate regarding the new settlement space and the reconstruction of identities.
?Qué significa estar seguro?: De delitos, miedos e inseguridades entre los adultos mayores
Varela,Cecilia;
Cuadernos de antropolog?-a social , 2005,
Abstract: ever since the implementation of the victimization surveys (vs), the victimization literature acknowledges the paradox whereby the social groups less vulnerable to crime (women and the elderly, for the most part) exhibit high levels of fear and, on the contrary, those most susceptible to crime (youngsters and males) manifest lower levels of fear. the goal of this paper is to explore a range of representations about the "security" issue held by the elderly with a qualitative strategy. on the other hand, on the assumption that fear of crime cannot be solely linked to the actual object through which this is manifested, i examine new analytical dimensions accounting for "fear of crime" above and beyond the criminality issue within this age class.
Efecto de las guías de néctar sobre la eficiencia de polinización en Alstroemeria aurea (Alstroemeriaceae)
Varela,Carlos;
Darwiniana , 2009,
Abstract: we evaluated the effect that nectar guides have on the efficiency in pollination of flowers in alstroemeria aurea (alstroemeriaceae), a herbaceous, xenogamous plant, which blooms in temperate forests of southern south america. the flowers were manipulated in situ and subjected to three treatments: flowers with nectar guides (fcg, not manipulated, control); flowers without nectar guides (fsg, flowers with nectar guides that were obscured) and control-control (cc, flowers in which the nectariferous tepals were covered by other nectariferous tepals to test the possible effect of double petals). the efficiency of pollination was evaluated as a function of visitation frequency, quantity of pollen deposited on the stigmas of visited flowers and quantity of accumulated nectar. our results show that the absence of nectar guides significantly affected the efficiency of visits by pollinators (?2 = 18.97, df: 2, p <<0.004) the quantity of pollen grains deposited on stigmas (f = 19.39 ; gl: 2, p <<0.0001) and the accumulated volume of nectar (f = 12.87, df: 2, p <<0.005). the fsg were less visited, received fewer pollen grains per stigma and had a higher volume of accumulated nectar, unlike the fcg and cc. about 90% of all floral visits were accomplished by bombus ruderathus (84.11%) and b. dahlbomii (8.41 %), that possess well developed sensory perception (responding to nectar guide patterns in the flowers). we propose that the absence of nectar guides from the flowers of a. aurea, eliminated orientation patterns assisting visitors, indicating access to rewards, and consequently affected their pollination.
Efectividad de Estrategias de Prevención de Violencia Escolar: La Experiencia del Programa Recoleta en Buena
Varela,Jorge;
Psykhe (Santiago) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22282011000200006
Abstract: the results of the evaluation of the effectiveness of a program aimed to reduce school violence in 4 public schools of recoleta, in the metropolitan region of chile, are described. a pretest-posttest pre-experimental design with a single group was used. in 2006 and 2088, 677 and 553 students from 5th to 12th grade, respectively, were evaluated. eight factors of violence, as perceived by witnesses, victims, aggressors, and the school climate, were assessed. there was a decrease in violence between both years in the factors observer and victim of peer violence, observer of antisocial violence, observer of violence from students to adults and from teachers to students, and perpetrator of peer violence. when the same grades were followed, only observer and victim of violence from teachers to students and observer of violence from students to teachers show a reduction. the results show effectiveness of the program in preventive and promotional matters, but not in more serious violent behaviors. the importance to progress in the evaluation of school violence programs is highlighted.
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