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A Novel Operational Partition between Neural Network Classifiers on Vulnerability to Data Mining Bias  [PDF]
Charles Wong
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74027
Abstract:

It is difficult if not impossible to appropriately and effectively select from among the vast pool of existing neural network machine learning predictive models for industrial incorporation or academic research exploration and enhancement. When all models outperform all the others under disparate circumstances, none of the models do. Selecting the ideal model becomes a matter of ill-supported opinion ungrounded on the extant real world environment. This paper proposes a novel grouping of the model pool grounded along a non-stationary real world data line into two groups: Permanent Data Learning and Reversible Data Learning. This paper further proposes a novel approach towards qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrating their significant differences based on how they alternatively approach dynamic and raw real world data vs static and prescient data mining biased laboratory data. The results across 2040 separate simulation runs using 15,600 data points in realistically operationally controlled data environments show that the two-group division is effective and significant with clear qualitative, quantitative and theoretical support. Results across the empirical and theoretical spectrum are internally and externally consistent yet demonstrative of why and how this result is non-obvious.

Evaluating Online Shopping Service Quality—SERVEGAL in Taiwan Tourism Industry  [PDF]
Meiling Wong
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29036
Abstract:

While SERVQUAL is the most extensively used measurements of service quality among industries nowadays and its five-dimension measured factors are investigated with respect to the customers’ reaction, E-SERVQUAL thus is developed amid traditional service industries to cope with the internet markets. Both two models use measured data based upon after purchased instead of pre- purchased which is considered as the main concern for service quality. Taking Magal’s instrument into account, which indicates three dimensions that possess the function of customers’ comments, customers’ demand and service planning to measure the service quality, we propose the SERVEGAL model to include customers’ recognition on service quality pre-purchasing. And a case study in tourism industry is applied to verify our proposal. The result of this study shows that SERVEGAL is not merely a service planning provider, but also a tool to accommodate with the customers’ expectation for service quality.

The Future of Public Sector HRM in Mauritius from an Accountability Perspective  [PDF]
Anita Ramgutty-Wong
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.23011
Abstract:

The collective vision of sustainable human development, as expressed by the international community in the UN Millennium Declaration, is a challenge for countries that are not adequately equipped to face the challenges of globalization. A key step in the right direction is the institutionalization of a transparent and accountable public sector that would be truly responsive to a country’s need. As in other parts of the world, Mauritius has embarked on reform programs in response to new opportunities brought about by globalization and the “rise” of Africa. Although public sector reform has appeared on the agenda of successive governments since early 1990s, many critics feel that the progress could have been faster and more substantial. In particular, the traditional omnipresent state has been much criticized for keeping bureaucratic red tape and inefficiency, and generally a poor level of accountability with respect to its obligations. Thus, in order to fully capitalize on the spreading trend of globalization and the immense opportunities offered by the “rise” of Africa, it becomes necessary to look into the reforms to the Public Services as far as human resource management is concerned. This paper lays down the state of affairs in this area and proposes an analysis of the pertinence and efficacy of such reforms from an accountability perspective. Many positive results are noted amongst those ministries that have implemented the Performance Management System, but many other findings are also problematic, such as: 1) Lack of clarity on how PLM is promoting organizational goals; 2) Many staffs unconvince that PMS will help improve their career prospects; 3) Few public sector organizations are able to use the PMS as a basis for staff training plans or for promotion decisions; 4) The appraisal forms are cumbersome and unrealistic; 5) PMS seems to be missing the point of addressing real management challenges; 6) Poor senior management “focus” and commitment to PMS. These findings echo what already exists in many case study reports and literature reviews, wherein we find that performance management systems seem to fall foul of their lofty ideals. Nevertheless, the Mauritian Public Sector has implemented a Performance-Based Budgeting (PBB) system, as a driving force behind the emphasis on identifying goals and measures. This complements the PMS in pushing public sector departments and ministries in the direction of aligning their activities, including HRM, toward achieving strategic goals and measuring progress

Combining Likelihood Information from Independent Investigations  [PDF]
L. Jiang, A. Wong
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.51007
Abstract: Fisher [1] proposed a simple method to combine p-values from independent investigations without using detailed information of the original data. In recent years, likelihood-based asymptotic methods have been developed to produce highly accurate p-values. These likelihood-based methods generally required the likelihood function and the standardized maximum likelihood estimates departure calculated in the canonical parameter scale. In this paper, a method is proposed to obtain a p-value by combining the likelihood functions and the standardized maximum likelihood estimates departure of independent investigations for testing a scalar parameter of interest. Examples are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method and simulation studies are performed to compare the accuracy of the proposed method with Fisher’s method.
Rectal Lymphoma: A Diagnostic Challenge  [PDF]
Koh Ging Wong
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.54004
Abstract: Rectal lymphoma is a rare colorectal tumor with incidence of 0.2% - 0.6%. We report a rare case of large rectal lymphoma. Our patient is a 48-year-old man, presented with 2 months history of per rectal bleed, altered bowel habits and weight loss. Clinical examination, computed tomography scan and initial endoscopic mucosal biopsy were indistinguishable from Rectal Carcinoma. With high level of suspicion, we resorted to full thickness punch biopsy in lithotomy position for a good tissue sample. Ultimately, an immunohistochemical study confirmed Diffuse Large B-cells Lymphoma (DLBCL). This case highlighted the importance of high level of suspicion for lymphoma when dealing with a rectal tumor. Accurate diagnosis of rectal lymphoma affects the treatment modalities and prognosis of the patient.
Deflationism, Rationalism, and Anti-Rationalism: Three Views of Superego Morality  [PDF]
Ching Wa Wong
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.56045
Abstract: Philosophers of psychoanalysis have for years been debating over Freud’s criticism of morality as a sheer product of irrationality originated in our superego development. In this paper I shall consider three views on Freud’s moral psychology, which I call the “deflationist”, the “rationalist”, and the “anti-rationalist” view. I argue that both the deflationist and the rationalist view are untenable, as they fail to distinguish among different senses of irrationality that we can attribute to morality. By contrast, I shall develop and defend an anti-rationalist view, to the effect that an inherently irrational superego is no threat to morality’s place in human life, as long as it’s capable of making us experience an integrated form of life. And as this desired interaction does not always come easily, we can naturally see the point of introducing psychoanalysis to our lives.
Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study
Wai Wong, Man Wong
Scoliosis , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7161-3-7
Abstract: A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities.Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is < 1° and < 1.5° in static and dynamic tilting measurements respectively. The results showed that the smart garment could facilitate subjects to prevent prolonged poor postures of the spine, especially the posture of the lumbar spine in which at least 40% of the time in poor posture were reduced.The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.Poor postures of the spine, deviations from the "natural curvature of the spine", have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain [1-5]. Spinal disorders could occur in different populations, including growing, working and aging populations. For instance, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type and represents about 80% of idiopathic scoliosis. Apart from physical deformity of the spine, postural and proprioceptive dysfunctions are suggested to be the common defect of idiopathic scoliosis [6-9], which may deteriorate the spinal deformities. Low back pain always gives a major burden to the society as it associates with high costs of health care
Relationship Commitment in Self-financed Higher Education
Helen Wong,Raymond Wong
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n7p15
Abstract: Building on the well-established relationship marketing concepts, this research investigates the key determinants of relationship commitment in self-financed higher education. The findings indicate that relationship benefits, relationship termination costs, and shared values have positive influence on relationship commitment. Among these three determinants, the construct of relationship benefits is found to be the most important factor affecting relationship commitment. The research contributes new and useful insights to the management of self-financed higher education in building relationship with students and resources allocation.
Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy in the Emergent Setting  [PDF]
Andrew McCague, David T. Wong
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.42018
Abstract:

Objective: Since its inception, the use of the percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) has been contraindicated in the setting of an emergent airway. Emerging in the literature are several cases of successful emergent PDTs. Here we present our experience with the use of PDT in managing emergent airways. Study Design: All patients who underwent emergent PDT, using the Ciaglia Blue Rhino Introducer Set (Cook Critical Care, Bloomington,IN), in an academic county hospital setting between February 2010 and May 2012 were included in the study. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographic and procedural data. Results: Twelve patients were included in the study with ages ranging from 20 to 87 (mean 57) years-old. The most common reason for emergent airway was trauma (7 patients), followed by obstructing neck mass (2 patients), septic shock (2 patients), and angioedema (1 patient). Seven PDTs were performed in the OR, four at bedside and one in the ER. Three of the 12 patients had emergent cricothyroidotomies in place that malfunctioned, requiring emergent conversion. No patients suffered from short term complications. One patient developed a neck abscess at the site of the PDT one month post operatively, two patients had accidental decanulation post operatively, and both were replaced without complication. Conclusions: PDT can be used in the emergent setting in the hands of trained practitioners with minimal complications. A larger, prospective trial is needed to make conclusions regarding patient care.

The Molecular Evolution of Animal Reproductive Tract Proteins: What Have We Learned from Mating-System Comparisons?
Alex Wong
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/908735
Abstract: Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to drive the rapid evolution of reproductive tract genes in many animals. Recently, a number of studies have sought to test this hypothesis by examining the effects of mating system variation on the evolutionary rates of reproductive tract genes. Perhaps surprisingly, there is relatively little evidence that reproductive proteins evolve more rapidly in species subject to strong postcopulatory sexual selection. This emerging trend may suggest that other processes, such as host-pathogen interactions, are the main engines of rapid reproductive gene evolution. I suggest that such a conclusion is as yet unwarranted; instead, I propose that more rigorous analytical techniques, as well as multigene and population-based approaches, are required for a full understanding of the consequences of mating system variation for the evolution of reproductive tract genes. 1. Introduction Over the last two decades, it has become widely appreciated that genes expressed in reproductive tissues, particularly in males, are among the most rapidly evolving genes in the genomes of many organisms. The phenomenon of rapid reproductive tract gene evolution is phylogenetically widespread, having been documented in vertebrates (e.g., [1–4]), invertebrates (e.g., [5, 6]), plants (e.g., [7, 8]), and fungi (e.g., [9]). As such, there is substantial interest in understanding the extent, causes, and consequences of the rapid evolution of reproductive genes. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the rapid evolution of reproductive tract genes, and the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms likely varies in different taxa. In plants, for example, high within-species diversity of interacting pollen and stigma proteins is vital for the avoidance of self-fertilization [10]. In other species, sexual conflict is thought to play a role in the rapid coevolution of interacting sperm and egg coat proteins, with selection on males favouring sperm that can rapidly penetrate the egg coat and selection on females to avoid polyspermy ([11], but see [12, 13]). Immune processes may also contribute to the rapid evolution of some reproductive proteins: in internally fertilizing animals in particular, copulation is likely to introduce potential pathogens into the female reproductive tract. An arms race between pathogens and hosts could, therefore, underlie selection on female- or male-derived antimicrobial proteins [13–16]. In this perspective, I will focus on the contribution of postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) to rapid reproductive
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