OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721




2019 ( 2 )

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匹配条件: “Yamada” ,找到相关结果约2317条。
Some Comments on the Real Meaning of Schrodinger’s Equation Revealed by the Fact that Electron Is Always a Particle  [PDF]
Hironari Yamada
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2012.24017

We all physicist have long been believed that an elementary particle is a wave as well as a particle, but we discuss in this paper that an electron (probably all fermions) is always a particle. Author claim that quantum mechanics (QM) is not such mysterious as Bohr stated that the wave turn to the particle by observation. We can understand QM by natural human sense. The wave nature of electrons is only an appearance or a phenomena but not intrinsic or substantial. An electron is an individual body, which interferes with other individual electrons. Interference is the key word instead of the wave to understand the quantum mechanics. Interference produces the wave nature and the uncertainty. When we determine that an electron is nothing but a particle, we will see the true meaning of wave function and the Schr?dinger’s equation.

A Bivariate Software Reliability Model with Change-Point and Its Applications  [PDF]
Shinji Inoue, Shigeru Yamada
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.11001
Abstract: Testing-time when a change of a stochastic characteristic of the software failure-occurrence time or software failure-occurrence time-interval is observed is called change-point. It is said that effect of the change-point on the software reliability growth process influences on accuracy for software reliability assessment based on a software reliability growth model (SRGM). We propose an SRGM with the effect of the change-point based on a bivariate SRGM, in which the software reliability growth process is assumed to depend on the testing-time and testing-effort factors simultaneously, for accurate software reliability assessment. And we discuss an optimal software release problem for deriving optimal testing-effort expenditures based on our model. Further, we show numerical examples of software reliability assessment based on our bivariate SRGM and estimation of optimal testing-effort expenditures by using actual data.
Temperature Dependency of Photosynthesis of Sphagnum spp. Distributed in the Warm-Temperate and the Cool-Temperate Mires of Japan  [PDF]
Akira Haraguchi, Nanae Yamada
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.25086
Abstract: We investigated the temperature dependency of photosynthetic rates for five Sphagnum species: Sphagnum palustre, S. fimbriatum in the Tadewara mire (south-western Japan in a warm-temperate zone) and S. papillosum, S. fuscum, S. fallax in the East Ochiishi mire (north-eastern Japan in a cool-temperate zone) measuring photosynthetic light response within a temperature range between 5 and 40C. The maximum photosynthetic rate was obtained at T = 35C for S. palustre, S. fuscum and S. papillosum, and at T = 30C for S. fimbriatum and S. fallax. Photosynthetic rates of all these species showed a maximum at 300 - 500 μmol·m-2·s-1 of PPFD and it decreased at higher PPFD (>500 μmol·m-2·s-1) under low temperature (5C - 10C). These results imply that Sphagnum species are not fully physiologically adapted to low temperature environments, although Sphagnum species distribute mostly in the circumpolar region.
Empirical Analysis for High Quality Software Development  [PDF]
Naomi Honda, Shigeru Yamada
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.21004
Abstract: It remains important for a development organization to configure a software process that enables it to develop software products with the least possible number of defects after shipment. A development organization of CMMI level 5 has, over three years, been strived to improve those software projects that had been noted as having many defects after shipment. In this paper, we discuss our organization’s improvement (Kaizen) activities, to analyze the important matters of software process to be considered when developing a software product with the least possible number of defects after shipment. Our results are identified by three important points; 1) early ensured quality by defect detection during design or code review; 2) quality assurance for both process quality and product one; and 3) quantitative management by which data of the appropriate resolution can be collected at an appropriate timing.
Package Licenses in Patent Pools with Basic and Optional Patents  [PDF]
Kenji Azetsu, Seiji Yamada
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.41002
Abstract: Patent pools are established by the patent holders in order to promote R & D and technological standards, etc. This paper investigates the patent holders’ incentive to form a patent pool, the patent pool’s licensing behavior, and the anticompetitive effect of a patent pool. Our model is characterized by the following two features. First, we consider the different two types of patent: basic and optional. Second, we consider a patent pool that offers two types of a package license: single and multiple. Our results yield some implications for a patent pool that is characterized by the complementarity between basic and optional patents.
Evaluation of Broadleaf Tree Diversity at the Basin Scale—In Case of Artificial Chamaecyparis obtusa Forests  [PDF]
Sayumi Kosaka, Yozo Yamada
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2013.32010

In recent years, the various functions required of forests, especially the conservation of biodiversity, have been attracting increasing attention in Japan and worldwide. In Japan, 67% of national land is covered by forest, 41% of which is artificial forest (i.e., plantations). Therefore, forest biodiversity conservation efforts should also target artificial forests. In this paper, we seek to promote sustainable forest management that considers biodiversity conservation by examining indices that can be used by forest managers to evaluate the diversity of broadleaf trees. The result was that evaluation of broadleaf tree diversity in artificial forests at a basin scale was possible by combining several types of indicators.

A Bootstrapping Approach for Software Reliability Measurement Based on a Discretized NHPP Model  [PDF]
Shinji Inoue, Shigeru Yamada
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.64A001

Discrete software reliability measurement has a proper characteristic for describing a software reliability growth process which depends on a unit of the software fault-detection period, such as the number of test runs, the number of executed test cases. This paper discusses discrete software reliability measurement based on a discretized nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) model. Especially, we use a bootstrapping method in our discrete software reliability measurement for discussing the statistical inference on parameters and software reliability assessment measures of our model. Finally we show numerical examples of interval estimations based on our bootstrapping method for the several software reliability assessment measures by using actual data.

Lognormal Process Software Reliability Modeling with Testing-Effort  [PDF]
Shinji Inoue, Shigeru Yamada
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.64A002

We propose a software reliability growth model with testing-effort based on a continuous-state space stochastic process, such as a lognormal process, and conduct its goodness-of-fit evaluation. We also discuss a parameter estimation method of our model. Then, we derive several software reliability assessment measures by the probability distribution of its solution process, and compare our model with existing continuous-state space software reliability growth models in terms of the mean square error and the Akaike’s information criterion by using actual fault count data.

An Evaluation Model for Improving Biodiversity in Artificial Coniferous Forests Invaded by Broadleaf Trees  [PDF]
Yozo Yamada, Sayumi Kosaka
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34020

Increasing attention is being paid to the various functions of forests, especially the conservation of biodiversity. In Japan, 67% of national land is covered by forest, 41% of which is artificial forest (i.e., plantations). Therefore, efforts to conserve forest biodiversity should also target artificial forests. In this study, we investigated the increase in biodiversity resulting from broadleaf tree invasion of artificial coniferous forests. We examined diversity indices and combinations of indices to identify which ones can aid forest managers in evaluating forest diversity. We also studied classification according to the richness of diversity, which corresponded to the growth stages of Chamaecyparisobtusa and Cryptomeria japonica plantation forests. Moreover, we developed a model that will contribute to sustainable forest management and biodiversity over an entire area. The model, based on a specific rotation scenario in a geographic information system, is easy to use and presents spatial and temporal changes at sites visually.

Thermally Induced Nanocrystal Array of Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) on Si-Wafer Substrate  [PDF]
Kazushi Yamada, Yasuyuki Tsuboi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.55032

Recently, nanostructures such as nanocrystals and nanoaggregates have attracted much attention in many quarters of materials, electronics, and biology to create higher-value-added functional nanoscale materials and films. In this research, the fabrication of nanoaggregates on ultrathin photoconductive films of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) by applying thermal treatment is demonstrated. The structure and size are discussed on the basis of the results of atomic force microscope images. As a result, after thermal treatment of these films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PVCz, different types of surface morphological changes were induced showing a dependence on the tacticity of PVCz. Radically polymerized PVCz(r) ultrathin film showed small aggregates with heights of ~8 nm on the film surface after thermal treatment, while cationically polymerized PVCz(c), which has higher isotactic diad fractions than PVCz(r), indicated similar aggregates on the film surface, although the number of aggregates was smaller than PVCz(r). It is considered that these different phenomena depend on the tacticity of PVCz and the interaction between PVCz molecules and the substrate surface.


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