We all physicist have long been believed that an elementary particle is a wave as well as a particle, but we discuss in this paper that an electron (probably all fermions) is always a particle. Author claim that quantum mechanics (QM) is not such mysterious as Bohr stated that the wave turn to the particle by observation. We can understand QM by natural human sense. The wave nature of electrons is only an appearance or a phenomena but not intrinsic or substantial. An electron is an individual body, which interferes with other individual electrons. Interference is the key word instead of the wave to understand the quantum mechanics. Interference produces the wave nature and the uncertainty. When we determine that an electron is nothing but a particle, we will see the true meaning of wave function and the Schr?dinger’s equation.
In recent years, the various functions required of forests, especially the conservation of biodiversity, have been attracting increasing attention in Japan and worldwide. In Japan, 67% of national land is covered by forest, 41% of which is artificial forest (i.e., plantations). Therefore, forest biodiversity conservation efforts should also target artificial forests. In this paper, we seek to promote sustainable forest management that considers biodiversity conservation by examining indices that can be used by forest managers to evaluate the diversity of broadleaf trees. The result was that evaluation of broadleaf tree diversity in artificial forests at a basin scale was possible by combining several types of indicators.
Discrete software reliability measurement has a proper
characteristic for describing a software reliability growth process which
depends on a unit of the software fault-detection period, such as the number of
test runs, the number of executed test cases. This paper discusses discrete
software reliability measurement based on a discretized nonhomogeneous Poisson
process (NHPP) model. Especially, we use a bootstrapping method in our discrete
software reliability measurement for discussing the statistical inference on
parameters and software reliability assessment measures of our model. Finally
we show numerical examples of interval estimations based on our bootstrapping
method for the several software reliability assessment measures by using actual
We propose a software reliability
growth model with testing-effort based on a continuous-state space stochastic
process, such as a lognormal process, and conduct its goodness-of-fit
evaluation. We also discuss a parameter estimation method of our model. Then,
we derive several software reliability assessment measures by the probability
distribution of its solution process, and compare our model with existing
continuous-state space software reliability growth models in terms of the mean
square error and the Akaike’s information criterion by using actual fault count
Increasing attention is being paid to the various functions of forests, especially the conservation of biodiversity. In Japan, 67% of national land is covered by forest, 41% of which is artificial forest (i.e., plantations). Therefore, efforts to conserve forest biodiversity should also target artificial forests. In this study, we investigated the increase in biodiversity resulting from broadleaf tree invasion of artificial coniferous forests. We examined diversity indices and combinations of indices to identify which ones can aid forest managers in evaluating forest diversity. We also studied classification according to the richness of diversity, which corresponded to the growth stages of Chamaecyparisobtusa and Cryptomeria japonica plantation forests. Moreover, we developed a model that will contribute to sustainable forest management and biodiversity over an entire area. The model, based on a specific rotation scenario in a geographic information system, is easy to use and presents spatial and temporal changes at sites visually.
Recently, nanostructures such as nanocrystals and nanoaggregates have attracted much attention in many quarters of materials, electronics, and biology to create higher-value-added functional nanoscale materials and films. In this research, the fabrication of nanoaggregates on ultrathin photoconductive films of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) by applying thermal treatment is demonstrated. The structure and size are discussed on the basis of the results of atomic force microscope images. As a result, after thermal treatment of these films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PVCz, different types of surface morphological changes were induced showing a dependence on the tacticity of PVCz. Radically polymerized PVCz(r) ultrathin film showed small aggregates with heights of ~8 nm on the film surface after thermal treatment, while cationically polymerized PVCz(c), which has higher isotactic diad fractions than PVCz(r), indicated similar aggregates on the film surface, although the number of aggregates was smaller than PVCz(r). It is considered that these different phenomena depend on the tacticity of PVCz and the interaction between PVCz molecules and the substrate surface.